Thomas Issac Duvall & William Duvall- William Died Waving His Sword And Shouting “Victory”
Thomas Duvall (left) and William Duvall (right), along with brother Henderson, enlisted in Company C, 3rd Missouri Infantry on December 10, 1861, at Richmond, Missouri, after prior service in the Missouri State Guard. William was promoted to lieutenant on May 8, 1862.
The Duvalls fought at Carthage, Wilson’s Creek, Lexington, Pea Ridge, Farmington, Iuka and Corinth. On October 4, 1862, Lieutenant William Duvall was killed during the Confederate attack on Corinth, trying to plant the Confederate flag on the Union fortifications. Lieutenant Colonel Finley L. Hubbell, 3rd Missouri Infantry, recorded in his diary that William died waving his sword and shouting “Victory.”
Thomas Duvall and his brother Henderson were later killed at Champion Hill, Mississippi, on May 16, 1863.
Image Wilson’s Creek National Battlefield; WICR 30171

Warrior-Poet William Haines Lytle- He Had A Major Reputation In The 1800’s Heyday Of Poetry. He died at Chickamauga, left behind on the battle field where Confederate soldiers actually protected his body 
Confederate officer, Colonel Wm. Miller Owen, in his reminiscences of the civil war, relates that, while riding over the battlefield of Chickamauga, on September 20, 1863, he came upon the body of General Lytle, which he recognized as that of an old friend. He says: “A confederate soldier was standing guard over the body. Dismounting, I asked the man his instructions, and he replied, ‘I am here to take charge of this body, and to allow no one to touch it.’
His poetry was loved by both Yankees and Southerners, especially “Antony and Cleopatra” They read his poetry aloud in a makeshift tribute. They found some of his latest verses on his body including these lines he had written for his sisters:“In vain for me the applause of men,The Laurel won by sword or pen,But for the hope, so dear and sweet,To lay my trophies at your feet.”


‘Tis Only Once We Love By William Haines


The heart that throbbed at Glory’s voice And followed in her train, Although in sloth it slumbers long, May wake to life again. But ah! when once true love has bloomed, As many a heart can prove, The fragrance wasted ne’er returns— ‘Tis only once we love.
I tread the sunny paths of life, ‘Mid beauty’s proud array, But the spell that lent a charm to all Has mist-like passed away. No more the thrill from mingled pulse The eloquent low sigh, Nor the unbidden tear of joy That trembled in the eye.
Yet ofttimes in my early dreams, From some enchanted isle, Comes one with her soft, winning voice And the old gladsome smile,
And hand in hand we wander on Through violet-bordered glades, Till with the night’s starred legions bright The joyous vision fades.
Ah! sadly pass the hours away When that sweet light departs, Which fair as dawn on Eden rose With rapture on our hearts. And many a blossom fair is culled As through the world we rove; But the fairest is the rarest flower. ‘Tis only once we love.
Lytle never married, and left no direct descendants.
Photo Brady National Photographic Art Gallery (Washington, D.C.) info wiki and http://myweb.wvnet.edu/~jelkins/lp-2001/lytle3.html

Warrior-Poet William Haines Lytle- He Had A Major Reputation In The 1800’s Heyday Of Poetry. He died at Chickamauga, left behind on the battle field where Confederate soldiers actually protected his body

Confederate officer, Colonel Wm. Miller Owen, in his reminiscences of the civil war, relates that, while riding over the battlefield of Chickamauga, on September 20, 1863, he came upon the body of General Lytle, which he recognized as that of an old friend. He says: “A confederate soldier was standing guard over the body. Dismounting, I asked the man his instructions, and he replied, ‘I am here to take charge of this body, and to allow no one to touch it.’

His poetry was loved by both Yankees and Southerners, especially “Antony and Cleopatra” They read his poetry aloud in a makeshift tribute. They found some of his latest verses on his body including these lines he had written for his sisters:

“In vain for me the applause of men,
The Laurel won by sword or pen,
But for the hope, so dear and sweet,
To lay my trophies at your feet.”

Tis Only Once We Love By William Haines

The heart that throbbed at Glory’s voice
And followed in her train,
Although in sloth it slumbers long,
May wake to life again.
But ah! when once true love has bloomed,
As many a heart can prove,
The fragrance wasted ne’er returns—
‘Tis only once we love.

I tread the sunny paths of life,
‘Mid beauty’s proud array,
But the spell that lent a charm to all
Has mist-like passed away.
No more the thrill from mingled pulse
The eloquent low sigh,
Nor the unbidden tear of joy
That trembled in the eye.

Yet ofttimes in my early dreams,
From some enchanted isle,
Comes one with her soft, winning voice
And the old gladsome smile,

And hand in hand we wander on
Through violet-bordered glades,
Till with the night’s starred legions bright
The joyous vision fades.

Ah! sadly pass the hours away
When that sweet light departs,
Which fair as dawn on Eden rose
With rapture on our hearts.
And many a blossom fair is culled
As through the world we rove;
But the fairest is the rarest flower.
‘Tis only once we love.

Lytle never married, and left no direct descendants.

Photo Brady National Photographic Art Gallery (Washington, D.C.) info wiki and http://myweb.wvnet.edu/~jelkins/lp-2001/lytle3.html

Poet Warrior - William Haines Lytle
Celebrated American poet before the Civil War. Lytle’s most famous poem, “Antony and Cleopatra” (published in 1857), was beloved by both North and South in antebellum America
He was a politician in Ohio, renowned poet, and military officer in the Army during both the Mexican American War and The Civil War, where he was killed in action as a brigadier general. 
Lytle was mortally wounded at the Battle of Chickamauga in Georgia while leading a counterattack on horseback. Once his identity was known, respectful Confederates placed a guard around his body, and many recited his poetry over their evening campfires.
His funeral was held in the early afternoon at Christ Church on Fourth Street in Cincinnati. So many people lined the streets that the funeral cortege did not reach Spring Grove Cemetery until dusk. Lytle’s monument, one of the most impressive ones there, is near the entrance to the cemetery. The alleged shooter of Lytle was never discovered, and to this day has never been discovered, all that is known is that the shooter was a Confederate sniper using a Whitworth .45 caliber percussion rifle.
According to history presented to The Daughters of The Confederacy, the shooter was Hillary Garrison Waldrep of Company B of the 16th Alabama Regiment of Infantry. In order to make the shot that was purportedly approved personally by General Bragg, Waldrep had to adjust the sights on his rifle for 200 yards beyond where they usually were. According to the account, once General Lytle fell to the ground, his horse was spooked and ran toward the Confederate soldiers. Bragg gave Hillary Garrison Waldrep General Lytle’s horse, bed-roll and equipment. Waldrep later sold the horse for $100.
Taken From Antony and Cleopatra-Lytle’s most famous poem, 1858:
I am dying, Egypt, dying;

Hark! the insulting foeman’s cry;

They are coming; quick, my falchion!

Let me front them ere I die.

Ah, no more amid the battle

Shall my heart exulting swell;

Isis and Osiris guard thee, —

Cleopatra, Rome, farewell!
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Haines_Lytle
http://waroftherebellion.com/images/lyttle2.jpg

Poet Warrior - William Haines Lytle

Celebrated American poet before the Civil War. Lytle’s most famous poem, “Antony and Cleopatra” (published in 1857), was beloved by both North and South in antebellum America

He was a politician in Ohio, renowned poet, and military officer in the Army during both the Mexican American War and The Civil War, where he was killed in action as a brigadier general.

Lytle was mortally wounded at the Battle of Chickamauga in Georgia while leading a counterattack on horseback. Once his identity was known, respectful Confederates placed a guard around his body, and many recited his poetry over their evening campfires.

His funeral was held in the early afternoon at Christ Church on Fourth Street in Cincinnati. So many people lined the streets that the funeral cortege did not reach Spring Grove Cemetery until dusk. Lytle’s monument, one of the most impressive ones there, is near the entrance to the cemetery. The alleged shooter of Lytle was never discovered, and to this day has never been discovered, all that is known is that the shooter was a Confederate sniper using a Whitworth .45 caliber percussion rifle.

According to history presented to The Daughters of The Confederacy, the shooter was Hillary Garrison Waldrep of Company B of the 16th Alabama Regiment of Infantry. In order to make the shot that was purportedly approved personally by General Bragg, Waldrep had to adjust the sights on his rifle for 200 yards beyond where they usually were. According to the account, once General Lytle fell to the ground, his horse was spooked and ran toward the Confederate soldiers. Bragg gave Hillary Garrison Waldrep General Lytle’s horse, bed-roll and equipment. Waldrep later sold the horse for $100.

Taken From Antony and Cleopatra-Lytle’s most famous poem, 1858:

I am dying, Egypt, dying;

Hark! the insulting foeman’s cry;

They are coming; quick, my falchion!

Let me front them ere I die.

Ah, no more amid the battle

Shall my heart exulting swell;

Isis and Osiris guard thee, —

Cleopatra, Rome, farewell!

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Haines_Lytle

http://waroftherebellion.com/images/lyttle2.jpg


Ode to the Confederate Dead




Allen Tate, 1899 - 1979







Row after row with strict impunity
The headstones yield their names to the element,
The wind whirrs without recollection;
In the riven troughs the splayed leaves
Pile up, of nature the casual sacrament
To the seasonal eternity of death;
Then driven by the fierce scrutiny
Of heaven to their election in the vast breath,
They sough the rumour of mortality.

Autumn is desolation in the plot
Of a thousand acres where these memories grow
From the inexhaustible bodies that are not 
Dead, but feed the grass row after rich row.
Think of the autumns that have come and gone!--
Ambitious November with the humors of the year,
With a particular zeal for every slab,
Staining the uncomfortable angels that rot
On the slabs, a wing chipped here, an arm there:
The brute curiosity of an angel’s stare
Turns you, like them, to stone,
Transforms the heaving air
Till plunged to a heavier world below
You shift your sea-space blindly
Heaving, turning like the blind crab.

     Dazed by the wind, only the wind
     The leaves flying, plunge

You know who have waited by the wall
The twilight certainty of an animal,
Those midnight restitutions of the blood
You know--the immitigable pines, the smoky frieze
Of the sky, the sudden call: you know the rage,
The cold pool left by the mounting flood,
Of muted Zeno and Parmenides.
You who have waited for the angry resolution
Of those desires that should be yours tomorrow,
You know the unimportant shrift of death
And praise the vision
And praise the arrogant circumstance
Of those who fall
Rank upon rank, hurried beyond decision--
Here by the sagging gate, stopped by the wall. 

     Seeing, seeing only the leaves
     Flying, plunge and expire

Turn your eyes to the immoderate past,
Turn to the inscrutable infantry rising
Demons out of the earth they will not last.
Stonewall, Stonewall, and the sunken fields of hemp,
Shiloh, Antietam, Malvern Hill, Bull Run.
Lost in that orient of the thick and fast
You will curse the setting sun.

     Cursing only the leaves crying
     Like an old man in a storm

You hear the shout, the crazy hemlocks point
With troubled fingers to the silence which
Smothers you, a mummy, in time.

                               The hound bitch
Toothless and dying, in a musty cellar
Hears the wind only.
     
                    Now that the salt of their blood
Stiffens the saltier oblivion of the sea,
Seals the malignant purity of the flood,
What shall we who count our days and bow
Our heads with a commemorial woe
In the ribboned coats of grim felicity,
What shall we say of the bones, unclean,
Whose verdurous anonymity will grow?
The ragged arms, the ragged heads and eyes
Lost in these acres of the insane green?
The gray lean spiders come, they come and go;
In a tangle of willows without light
The singular screech-owl’s tight
Invisible lyric seeds the mind
With the furious murmur of their chivalry.

     We shall say only the leaves
     Flying, plunge and expire

We shall say only the leaves whispering
In the improbable mist of nightfall
That flies on multiple wing:
Night is the beginning and the end
And in between the ends of distraction
Waits mute speculation, the patient curse
That stones the eyes, or like the jaguar leaps
For his own image in a jungle pool, his victim.

What shall we say who have knowledge 
Carried to the heart?  Shall we take the act
To the grave?  Shall we, more hopeful, set up the grave
In the house?  The ravenous grave?

                                   Leave now
The shut gate and the decomposing wall:
The gentle serpent, green in the mulberry bush, 
Riots with his tongue through the hush--
Sentinel of the grave who counts us all!




From Selected Poems by Allen Tate, published by Charles Scribner’s Sons.
http://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poem/ode-confederate-dead
Zoom Info

Ode to the Confederate Dead




Allen Tate, 1899 - 1979







Row after row with strict impunity
The headstones yield their names to the element,
The wind whirrs without recollection;
In the riven troughs the splayed leaves
Pile up, of nature the casual sacrament
To the seasonal eternity of death;
Then driven by the fierce scrutiny
Of heaven to their election in the vast breath,
They sough the rumour of mortality.

Autumn is desolation in the plot
Of a thousand acres where these memories grow
From the inexhaustible bodies that are not 
Dead, but feed the grass row after rich row.
Think of the autumns that have come and gone!--
Ambitious November with the humors of the year,
With a particular zeal for every slab,
Staining the uncomfortable angels that rot
On the slabs, a wing chipped here, an arm there:
The brute curiosity of an angel’s stare
Turns you, like them, to stone,
Transforms the heaving air
Till plunged to a heavier world below
You shift your sea-space blindly
Heaving, turning like the blind crab.

     Dazed by the wind, only the wind
     The leaves flying, plunge

You know who have waited by the wall
The twilight certainty of an animal,
Those midnight restitutions of the blood
You know--the immitigable pines, the smoky frieze
Of the sky, the sudden call: you know the rage,
The cold pool left by the mounting flood,
Of muted Zeno and Parmenides.
You who have waited for the angry resolution
Of those desires that should be yours tomorrow,
You know the unimportant shrift of death
And praise the vision
And praise the arrogant circumstance
Of those who fall
Rank upon rank, hurried beyond decision--
Here by the sagging gate, stopped by the wall. 

     Seeing, seeing only the leaves
     Flying, plunge and expire

Turn your eyes to the immoderate past,
Turn to the inscrutable infantry rising
Demons out of the earth they will not last.
Stonewall, Stonewall, and the sunken fields of hemp,
Shiloh, Antietam, Malvern Hill, Bull Run.
Lost in that orient of the thick and fast
You will curse the setting sun.

     Cursing only the leaves crying
     Like an old man in a storm

You hear the shout, the crazy hemlocks point
With troubled fingers to the silence which
Smothers you, a mummy, in time.

                               The hound bitch
Toothless and dying, in a musty cellar
Hears the wind only.
     
                    Now that the salt of their blood
Stiffens the saltier oblivion of the sea,
Seals the malignant purity of the flood,
What shall we who count our days and bow
Our heads with a commemorial woe
In the ribboned coats of grim felicity,
What shall we say of the bones, unclean,
Whose verdurous anonymity will grow?
The ragged arms, the ragged heads and eyes
Lost in these acres of the insane green?
The gray lean spiders come, they come and go;
In a tangle of willows without light
The singular screech-owl’s tight
Invisible lyric seeds the mind
With the furious murmur of their chivalry.

     We shall say only the leaves
     Flying, plunge and expire

We shall say only the leaves whispering
In the improbable mist of nightfall
That flies on multiple wing:
Night is the beginning and the end
And in between the ends of distraction
Waits mute speculation, the patient curse
That stones the eyes, or like the jaguar leaps
For his own image in a jungle pool, his victim.

What shall we say who have knowledge 
Carried to the heart?  Shall we take the act
To the grave?  Shall we, more hopeful, set up the grave
In the house?  The ravenous grave?

                                   Leave now
The shut gate and the decomposing wall:
The gentle serpent, green in the mulberry bush, 
Riots with his tongue through the hush--
Sentinel of the grave who counts us all!




From Selected Poems by Allen Tate, published by Charles Scribner’s Sons.
http://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poem/ode-confederate-dead
Zoom Info

Ode to the Confederate Dead

Allen Tate, 1899 - 1979
Row after row with strict impunity
The headstones yield their names to the element,
The wind whirrs without recollection;
In the riven troughs the splayed leaves
Pile up, of nature the casual sacrament
To the seasonal eternity of death;
Then driven by the fierce scrutiny
Of heaven to their election in the vast breath,
They sough the rumour of mortality.

Autumn is desolation in the plot
Of a thousand acres where these memories grow
From the inexhaustible bodies that are not 
Dead, but feed the grass row after rich row.
Think of the autumns that have come and gone!--
Ambitious November with the humors of the year,
With a particular zeal for every slab,
Staining the uncomfortable angels that rot
On the slabs, a wing chipped here, an arm there:
The brute curiosity of an angel’s stare
Turns you, like them, to stone,
Transforms the heaving air
Till plunged to a heavier world below
You shift your sea-space blindly
Heaving, turning like the blind crab.

     Dazed by the wind, only the wind
     The leaves flying, plunge

You know who have waited by the wall
The twilight certainty of an animal,
Those midnight restitutions of the blood
You know--the immitigable pines, the smoky frieze
Of the sky, the sudden call: you know the rage,
The cold pool left by the mounting flood,
Of muted Zeno and Parmenides.
You who have waited for the angry resolution
Of those desires that should be yours tomorrow,
You know the unimportant shrift of death
And praise the vision
And praise the arrogant circumstance
Of those who fall
Rank upon rank, hurried beyond decision--
Here by the sagging gate, stopped by the wall. 

     Seeing, seeing only the leaves
     Flying, plunge and expire

Turn your eyes to the immoderate past,
Turn to the inscrutable infantry rising
Demons out of the earth they will not last.
Stonewall, Stonewall, and the sunken fields of hemp,
Shiloh, Antietam, Malvern Hill, Bull Run.
Lost in that orient of the thick and fast
You will curse the setting sun.

     Cursing only the leaves crying
     Like an old man in a storm

You hear the shout, the crazy hemlocks point
With troubled fingers to the silence which
Smothers you, a mummy, in time.

                               The hound bitch
Toothless and dying, in a musty cellar
Hears the wind only.
     
                    Now that the salt of their blood
Stiffens the saltier oblivion of the sea,
Seals the malignant purity of the flood,
What shall we who count our days and bow
Our heads with a commemorial woe
In the ribboned coats of grim felicity,
What shall we say of the bones, unclean,
Whose verdurous anonymity will grow?
The ragged arms, the ragged heads and eyes
Lost in these acres of the insane green?
The gray lean spiders come, they come and go;
In a tangle of willows without light
The singular screech-owl’s tight
Invisible lyric seeds the mind
With the furious murmur of their chivalry.

     We shall say only the leaves
     Flying, plunge and expire

We shall say only the leaves whispering
In the improbable mist of nightfall
That flies on multiple wing:
Night is the beginning and the end
And in between the ends of distraction
Waits mute speculation, the patient curse
That stones the eyes, or like the jaguar leaps
For his own image in a jungle pool, his victim.

What shall we say who have knowledge 
Carried to the heart?  Shall we take the act
To the grave?  Shall we, more hopeful, set up the grave
In the house?  The ravenous grave?

                                   Leave now
The shut gate and the decomposing wall:
The gentle serpent, green in the mulberry bush, 
Riots with his tongue through the hush--
Sentinel of the grave who counts us all!

From Selected Poems by Allen Tate, published by Charles Scribner’s Sons.

http://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poem/ode-confederate-dead

Charles Longfellow- Son Of Poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
In 1863, he ran off to enlist as a private in the Union Army during the Civil War, and eventually received a commission as a lieutenant in a cavalry regiment. Miraculously, he survived a bout with malaria and what could have been a mortal gun shot wound to his back, which he received while on campaign in Virginia. The bullet traveled across his back, nicked his spine, and exited under his right shoulder. He missed being paralyzed by less than an inch.
He knew his father disapproved of him fighting, but went anyway. He wrote a letter to his father saying, “I have tried to resist the temptation of going without your leave but cannot any longer.”
Charles Longfellow went on to become one of the earliest American tourists in Japan. His journal offers a rare picture of the Asian nation opening up to the world after centuries of isolation. Charles was independently wealthy with inheritances from his grandfather, Nathan Appleton and his mother, and spent the rest of his life traveling the world. He died in 1893, in Cambridge from pneumonia and is buried in the family vault in Mt. Auburn Cemetery. The souvenirs of his travels and his uniforms and accoutrements from his service in the Union Army are at Longfellow House in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
http://www.friendsoflongfellowhouse.org/2008/12/charles-appleton-longfellow-twenty.html
http://www.nps.gov/long/historyculture/charles-longfellow.htm

Charles Longfellow- Son Of Poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

In 1863, he ran off to enlist as a private in the Union Army during the Civil War, and eventually received a commission as a lieutenant in a cavalry regiment. Miraculously, he survived a bout with malaria and what could have been a mortal gun shot wound to his back, which he received while on campaign in Virginia. The bullet traveled across his back, nicked his spine, and exited under his right shoulder. He missed being paralyzed by less than an inch.

He knew his father disapproved of him fighting, but went anyway. He wrote a letter to his father saying, “I have tried to resist the temptation of going without your leave but cannot any longer.”

Charles Longfellow went on to become one of the earliest American tourists in Japan. His journal offers a rare picture of the Asian nation opening up to the world after centuries of isolation. Charles was independently wealthy with inheritances from his grandfather, Nathan Appleton and his mother, and spent the rest of his life traveling the world. He died in 1893, in Cambridge from pneumonia and is buried in the family vault in Mt. Auburn Cemetery. The souvenirs of his travels and his uniforms and accoutrements from his service in the Union Army are at Longfellow House in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

http://www.friendsoflongfellowhouse.org/2008/12/charles-appleton-longfellow-twenty.html

http://www.nps.gov/long/historyculture/charles-longfellow.htm

An Occurrence At Owl Creek Bridge Or “A Dead Man’s Dream Is A Short Story By American Author And Civil War Soldier Ambrose Bierce (1842–1913) From An Episode Of “The Twilight Zone” 1964

The film won the 1963 Academy Award for Best Short Film and first prize for Best Short Subject at the 1962 Cannes Film Festival. Often compared to the tales of Edgar Allan Poe, his stories share an attraction to death in its more bizarre forms.

Ambrose Bierce’s world was dramatically shaped by his war experience, as was true of many Union and Confederate soldiers who did not go on to become famous authors. As a soldier in the 9th Indiana Infantry, veteran of Shiloh, Chickamauga, and much of the Atlanta campaign, and as a staff officer, Bierce served faithfully through some of the worst combat the Civil War had to offer.  He produced a series of short reminiscences of that service much in the way that thousands of other veterans wrote of their war experience.

A group of soldiers is hanging a southern farm owner for trying to stop northern military movements across the Owl Creek Bridge.

In the last moments of his life, the southern prisoner dreams he has escaped. And everything that happens in the story is really the images in the prisoner’s mind just before he dies.

Bierce asks the reader to examine how far “right” can go before it becomes “wrong.”  The reader wants to sympathize with Farquhar not because Farquhar did anything right or noble, but because Farquhar is the only “human” in the story.  The reader feels pity and sympathy for Farquhar’s wife who will never see her husband again, and his children who will never have their father.  Yet the reader knows that the soldiers are the ones in the right, when the reader looks through Farquhar’s eyes, and is put in touch with Farquhar’s emotions… maybe, just this once, the bad guy can escape, the reader thinks.  Maybe the bad guy isn’t quite so bad. In very much the same way that Stephen King’s early works twisted reality just enough to make the terrifying plausible, so do many of the works of Ambrose Bierce. 

http://learningenglish.voanews.com/content/short-story-an-occurrence-at-owl-creek-bridge-by-ambrose-bierce-122750404/130926.html

http://www.ambrosebierce.org/journal3hess.html

http://www.humanities360.com/index.php/literary-anaylsis-an-occurrence-at-owl-creek-bridge-by-ambrose-bierce-28955/

Ambrose Bierce- Civil War Soldier And “Master Of The Macabre” 
Bierce was the only major author to have actually been a front-line soldier in the Civil War
In 1913, he traveled to Mexico to gain first-hand experience of the Mexican Revolution. While traveling with rebel troops, he disappeared without a trace.
He enlisted in the Union Army at nineteen. The Civil War cast a long shadow over his life and work, shaping him into the writer he would become, and spawning his fascination with the supernatural. Bierce evolved into a Master of the Macabre and though he became most widely known for his ghost stories, his war stories are considered by some critics to be the best writing on the Civil War.
He fought at Shiloh, Pickett’s Mill, Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Philippi, Girard Hill, Shiloh, Stones River, Corinth, Missionary Ridge. He resigned in 1865 after taking a bullet wound to the head. Causing him dizziness and black outs. 
Two days spent at Shiloh made an indelible impression on Bierce. Many years later, for example, he would write a haunting autobiographical short story, “The Coup de Grace,” which describes wounded men being burned alive in brush fires and wild pigs eating the corpses. As horrific as it had been, Shiloh would not be the bloodiest battle that Bierce would experience.
Dead horses were everywhere; a few disabled caissons, or limbers, reclining on one elbow, as it were; ammunition wagons standing disconsolate behind four or six sprawling mules. Men? There were men enough; all dead apparently, except one, who lay near where I had halted my platoon to await the slower movement of the line — a Federal sergeant, variously hurt, who had been a fine giant in his time. He lay face upward, taking in his breath in convulsive, rattling snorts, and blowing it out in sputters of froth which crawled creamily down his cheeks, piling itself alongside his neck and ears. A bullet had clipped a groove in his skull, above the temple; from this the brain protruded in bosses, dropping off in flakes and strings. I had not previously known one could get on, even in this unsatisfactory fashion, with so little brain. One of my men whom I knew for a womanish fellow, asked if he should put his bayonet through him. Inexpressibly shocked by the cold-blooded proposal, I told him I thought not; it was unusual, and too many were looking. —from “What I Saw of Shiloh” (1862)
His Civil War StoriesOne of the Missing A Baffled Ambuscade The Affair at Coulter’s NotchA Son of the Gods  One Kind of Officer  A Tough TussleAn Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge  ChickamaugaThe Coup de Grâce  One Officer, One ManThe Story of a Conscience  Parker Adderson, PhilosopherAn Affair of Outposts  Jupiter Doke, Brigadier-GeneralA Horseman in the Sky  The Mocking-BirdGeorge Thurston  Killed at ResacaThree and One Are One  Two Military ExecutionsThe Major’s Tale  A Resumed IdentityA Man with Two Lives  The Other Lodgers 
http://thesmartset.com/article/article09261101.aspx
http://www.nypl.org/blog/2013/04/18/ambrose-bierce-civil-war-stories

Ambrose Bierce- Civil War Soldier And “Master Of The Macabre”

Bierce was the only major author to have actually been a front-line soldier in the Civil War

In 1913, he traveled to Mexico to gain first-hand experience of the Mexican Revolution. While traveling with rebel troops, he disappeared without a trace.

He enlisted in the Union Army at nineteen. The Civil War cast a long shadow over his life and work, shaping him into the writer he would become, and spawning his fascination with the supernatural. Bierce evolved into a Master of the Macabre and though he became most widely known for his ghost stories, his war stories are considered by some critics to be the best writing on the Civil War.

He fought at Shiloh, Pickett’s Mill, Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Philippi, Girard Hill, Shiloh, Stones River, Corinth, Missionary Ridge. He resigned in 1865 after taking a bullet wound to the head. Causing him dizziness and black outs. 

Two days spent at Shiloh made an indelible impression on Bierce. Many years later, for example, he would write a haunting autobiographical short story, “The Coup de Grace,” which describes wounded men being burned alive in brush fires and wild pigs eating the corpses. As horrific as it had been, Shiloh would not be the bloodiest battle that Bierce would experience.

  • Dead horses were everywhere; a few disabled caissons, or limbers, reclining on one elbow, as it were; ammunition wagons standing disconsolate behind four or six sprawling mules. Men? There were men enough; all dead apparently, except one, who lay near where I had halted my platoon to await the slower movement of the line — a Federal sergeant, variously hurt, who had been a fine giant in his time. He lay face upward, taking in his breath in convulsive, rattling snorts, and blowing it out in sputters of froth which crawled creamily down his cheeks, piling itself alongside his neck and ears. A bullet had clipped a groove in his skull, above the temple; from this the brain protruded in bosses, dropping off in flakes and strings. I had not previously known one could get on, even in this unsatisfactory fashion, with so little brain. One of my men whom I knew for a womanish fellow, asked if he should put his bayonet through him. Inexpressibly shocked by the cold-blooded proposal, I told him I thought not; it was unusual, and too many were looking.
    —from “What I Saw of Shiloh” (1862)

His Civil War Stories

One of the Missing A Baffled Ambuscade The Affair at Coulter’s Notch
A Son of the Gods  One Kind of Officer  A Tough Tussle
An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge  Chickamauga
The Coup de Grâce  One Officer, One Man
The Story of a Conscience  Parker Adderson, Philosopher
An Affair of Outposts  Jupiter Doke, Brigadier-General
A Horseman in the Sky  The Mocking-Bird
George Thurston  Killed at Resaca
Three and One Are One  Two Military Executions
The Major’s Tale  A Resumed Identity
A Man with Two Lives  The Other Lodgers 

http://thesmartset.com/article/article09261101.aspx

http://www.nypl.org/blog/2013/04/18/ambrose-bierce-civil-war-stories


VOICES FROM THE CIVIL WAR
Chancellorsville, Described By Private Nathaniel Bierly, Musician
"Infantry, artillery, cavalry, panic-stricken cattle, accompanied with the shrieks of the wounded and groans of the dying, with a hail of shells from Jackson’s guns and serenaded by the rebel yell, with officers cursing in a chaotic state, was an experience I will never forget." 
Private Nathaniel Bierly, 148th Pennsylvania at Chancellorsvile
Enlisted on 8/29/1862 as a Musician.On 8/29/1862 he mustered into “B” Co. PA 148th Infantry He was Mustered Out on 6/1/1865 at Alexandria, VAOther Information: died 12/2/1902 in Milesburg, PA 
http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=14792917
http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/red-badge-courage-new-kind-realism

VOICES FROM THE CIVIL WAR

Chancellorsville, Described By Private Nathaniel Bierly, Musician

"Infantry, artillery, cavalry, panic-stricken cattle, accompanied with the shrieks of the wounded and groans of the dying, with a hail of shells from Jackson’s guns and serenaded by the rebel yell, with officers cursing in a chaotic state, was an experience I will never forget."

Private Nathaniel Bierly, 148th Pennsylvania at Chancellorsvile

Enlisted on 8/29/1862 as a Musician.
On 8/29/1862 he mustered into “B” Co. PA 148th Infantry
He was Mustered Out on 6/1/1865 at Alexandria, VA
Other Information: died 12/2/1902 in Milesburg, PA

http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=14792917

http://edsitement.neh.gov/lesson-plan/red-badge-courage-new-kind-realism

CDV of Bvt. Lt. Col. Joseph P. Ash, 5th US Cav.—KIA Todd’s Tavern, VA
1st lieutenant with imprint of “J.E. McClees, Philadelphia.” “Joseph Penrose Ash/United States Army./Taken after he had received/six wounds in battle.” Written in the same hand on verso is a lofty salutation that reads, “To General US Grant/General in Chief/of the Armies of the United States,” a rank Grant achieved in March 1864, two months before Ash was killed. Joseph Penrose Ash (1839-1864) was a fearless and efficient officer who received his appointment in the 2nd Cavalry (later 5th Cavalry) directly from President Lincoln in April 1861 after a daring reconnaissance “inside the enemy lines across the Potomac.” Ash was promoted to 1st Lieutenant in January 1862 and served in the Peninsula campaign being “one of the very few officers” fortunate to emerge unscathed from the 5th Cavalry’s epic charge at Gaines Mill. Lieutenant Ash frequently led squadron size commands and his sterling conduct under fire was mentioned in the official reports of his superior officers including Pleasanton, Merritt and Custer (see OR’s). Ash was severely wounded at Warrenton on November 8, 1862 where he “received at least three saber cuts and a gunshot wound.” He was brevetted major for “conspicuous gallantry” at Warrenton and did not return to his regiment until the fall of 1863. Promoted to captain in September 1863, Ash rejoined the 5th Cavalry in October and was slightly wounded at Morton’s Ford before joining the fight at Bristoe Station. Serving under Merritt and Custer early in 1864, Captain Ash’s “spirited” conduct earned him the accolades of these esteemed cavalrymen. Ash was killed at Todd’s Tavern on May 8, 1864 “while trying to rally a regiment of infantry” and hastily buried on the field. The divisional after action report served as both a testament and eulogy to the young officer: “He died nobly in the discharge of a most important duty; a heroic, patriotic, intrepid cavalry officer, a noble martyr in his country’s service.” Ash was brevetted lieutenant colonel for “conspicuous gallantry at Spotsylvania” and was later reburied in St. James-the-Less Churchyard, Philadelphia on May 15, 1865.  
http://www.cowanauctions.com/auctions/item.aspx?id=81261
CDV of Bvt. Lt. Col. Joseph P. Ash, 5th US Cav.—KIA Todd’s Tavern, VA

1st lieutenant with imprint of “J.E. McClees, Philadelphia.” “Joseph Penrose Ash/United States Army./Taken after he had received/six wounds in battle.” Written in the same hand on verso is a lofty salutation that reads, “To General US Grant/General in Chief/of the Armies of the United States,” a rank Grant achieved in March 1864, two months before Ash was killed.

Joseph Penrose Ash (1839-1864) was a fearless and efficient officer who received his appointment in the 2nd Cavalry (later 5th Cavalry) directly from President Lincoln in April 1861 after a daring reconnaissance “inside the enemy lines across the Potomac.” Ash was promoted to 1st Lieutenant in January 1862 and served in the Peninsula campaign being “one of the very few officers” fortunate to emerge unscathed from the 5th Cavalry’s epic charge at Gaines Mill. Lieutenant Ash frequently led squadron size commands and his sterling conduct under fire was mentioned in the official reports of his superior officers including Pleasanton, Merritt and Custer (see OR’s).

Ash was severely wounded at Warrenton on November 8, 1862 where he “received at least three saber cuts and a gunshot wound.” He was brevetted major for “conspicuous gallantry” at Warrenton and did not return to his regiment until the fall of 1863. Promoted to captain in September 1863, Ash rejoined the 5th Cavalry in October and was slightly wounded at Morton’s Ford before joining the fight at Bristoe Station. Serving under Merritt and Custer early in 1864, Captain Ash’s “spirited” conduct earned him the accolades of these esteemed cavalrymen.

Ash was killed at Todd’s Tavern on May 8, 1864 “while trying to rally a regiment of infantry” and hastily buried on the field. The divisional after action report served as both a testament and eulogy to the young officer: “He died nobly in the discharge of a most important duty; a heroic, patriotic, intrepid cavalry officer, a noble martyr in his country’s service.” Ash was brevetted lieutenant colonel for “conspicuous gallantry at Spotsylvania” and was later reburied in St. James-the-Less Churchyard, Philadelphia on May 15, 1865.

http://www.cowanauctions.com/auctions/item.aspx?id=81261

Unidentified Soldiers Of The 33rd United States Colored Troops

The 33rd was oganized January 31, 1863 or February 8, 1864, as 1st South Carolina Volunteers Colored Infantry. Attached to U. S. Forces, Port Royal Island, South Carolina, 10th Corps, Dept. of the South, to April, 1864. Mustered out January 31, 1866

"No officer in this regiment now doubts that the key to the successful prosecution of this war lies in the unlimited employment of black troops. Their superiority lies simply in the fact that they know the country, while white troops do not, and, moreover, that they have peculiarities of temperament, position, and motive which belong to them alone. Instead of leaving their homes and families to fight they are fighting for their homes and families, and they show the resolution and sagacity which a personal purpose gives. It would have been madness to attempt, with the bravest white troops what I have successfully accomplished with the black ones. Everything, even to the piloting of the vessels and the selection of the proper points for cannonading, was done by my own soldiers."
— Excerpt from February 1, 1863 report by Colonel T. W. Higginson, commander of the First Regiment South Carolina Volunteers (Union) after the January 23 - February 1, 1863 Expedition from Beaufort South Carolina, up the Saint Mary’s River in Georgia and Florida.
http://www.drbronsontours.com/bronson33rduscthistoryandstaugmembers.html

Unidentified Soldiers Of The 33rd United States Colored Troops

The 33rd was oganized January 31, 1863 or February 8, 1864, as 1st South Carolina Volunteers Colored Infantry. Attached to U. S. Forces, Port Royal Island, South Carolina, 10th Corps, Dept. of the South, to April, 1864. Mustered out January 31, 1866

"No officer in this regiment now doubts that the key to the successful prosecution of this war lies in the unlimited employment of black troops. Their superiority lies simply in the fact that they know the country, while white troops do not, and, moreover, that they have peculiarities of temperament, position, and motive which belong to them alone. Instead of leaving their homes and families to fight they are fighting for their homes and families, and they show the resolution and sagacity which a personal purpose gives. It would have been madness to attempt, with the bravest white troops what I have successfully accomplished with the black ones. Everything, even to the piloting of the vessels and the selection of the proper points for cannonading, was done by my own soldiers."

— Excerpt from February 1, 1863 report by Colonel T. W. Higginson, commander of the First Regiment South Carolina Volunteers (Union) after the January 23 - February 1, 1863 Expedition from Beaufort South Carolina, up the Saint Mary’s River in Georgia and Florida.

http://www.drbronsontours.com/bronson33rduscthistoryandstaugmembers.html

Henry O. Nightingale- Eyewitness To History-
The Assassination Of Abraham Lincoln
His 1865 diary describes one of the most infamous events in American history. On April 14, Nightingale attended a performance at Ford’s Theatre. There, he witnessed the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln by John Wilkes Booth. Nightingale recounted the horrific scene, writing:
Transcription
A beautiful April day. Remained all day in the Hospital. In the evening, attended Ford’s Theatre and in the last act a most astounding crime was committed the President; Mr. Lincoln, shot through the head, the assassin then leaped out of the box on the stage and drew a large dagger and exclaimed “I have done it. Virginia is avenged. Sic semper tyrannis” and made his escape. the President was conveyed to a neighboring house in dying condition. a fearful night is this. Other [monstrous] crimes the Secretary of State his sons and [illegible] servants staffed found [illegible] God pit the rebellion now for men, will how no mercy death to every Confederate my Rebel sympathies, intense excitement all over the City. is under Martial Law. 

Henry O. Nightingale (1844-1919) was an abolitionist from Rochester, New York who at 18 years of age enlisted in the Northern army at the start of the Civil War. Nightingale fought in numerous battles, including the Battle of Gettysburg.
    Read Nightingale’s account of Lincoln’s assassination
Zoom Info
Henry O. Nightingale- Eyewitness To History-
The Assassination Of Abraham Lincoln
His 1865 diary describes one of the most infamous events in American history. On April 14, Nightingale attended a performance at Ford’s Theatre. There, he witnessed the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln by John Wilkes Booth. Nightingale recounted the horrific scene, writing:
Transcription
A beautiful April day. Remained all day in the Hospital. In the evening, attended Ford’s Theatre and in the last act a most astounding crime was committed the President; Mr. Lincoln, shot through the head, the assassin then leaped out of the box on the stage and drew a large dagger and exclaimed “I have done it. Virginia is avenged. Sic semper tyrannis” and made his escape. the President was conveyed to a neighboring house in dying condition. a fearful night is this. Other [monstrous] crimes the Secretary of State his sons and [illegible] servants staffed found [illegible] God pit the rebellion now for men, will how no mercy death to every Confederate my Rebel sympathies, intense excitement all over the City. is under Martial Law. 

Henry O. Nightingale (1844-1919) was an abolitionist from Rochester, New York who at 18 years of age enlisted in the Northern army at the start of the Civil War. Nightingale fought in numerous battles, including the Battle of Gettysburg.
    Read Nightingale’s account of Lincoln’s assassination
Zoom Info

Henry O. Nightingale- Eyewitness To History-

The Assassination Of Abraham Lincoln

His 1865 diary describes one of the most infamous events in American history. On April 14, Nightingale attended a performance at Ford’s Theatre. There, he witnessed the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln by John Wilkes Booth. Nightingale recounted the horrific scene, writing:

Transcription

A beautiful April day. Remained all day in the Hospital. In the evening, attended Ford’s Theatre and in the last act a most astounding crime was committed the President; Mr. Lincoln, shot through the head, the assassin then leaped out of the box on the stage and drew a large dagger and exclaimed “I have done it. Virginia is avenged. Sic semper tyrannis” and made his escape. the President was conveyed to a neighboring house in dying condition. a fearful night is this. Other [monstrous] crimes the Secretary of State his sons and [illegible] servants staffed found [illegible] God pit the rebellion now for men, will how no mercy death to every Confederate my Rebel sympathies, intense excitement all over the City. is under Martial Law.
Henry O. Nightingale (1844-1919) was an abolitionist from Rochester, New York who at 18 years of age enlisted in the Northern army at the start of the Civil War. Nightingale fought in numerous battles, including the Battle of Gettysburg.

    Read Nightingale’s account of Lincoln’s assassination

 Many Civil War Battlefields Are Threatened By Development
Photo: Buddy Secor’s photo of the Pelham cannon in Spotsylvania won second place in the “preservation threats’ category
The United States government has identified 384 battles that had a significant impact on the larger war.  Many of these battlefields have been developed—turned into shopping malls, pizza parlors, housing developments, etc.—and many more are threatened by development.  Since the end of the Civil War, veterans and other citizens have struggled to preserve the fields on which Americans fought and died.  The Civil War Trust and its partners have preserved more than 36,000 acres of battlefield land.
"Nothing creates an emotional connection between present and past like walking in the footsteps of our Civil War soldiers," -Civil War author Jeff Shaara
~What if one day we can no longer walk there?
PRESERVATION VIRGINIA ANNOUNCES 2014 MOST ENDANGERED SITES LIST
Virginia’s Civil War Battlefields
(Bristoe Station Battlefield and Williamsburg Battlefield)
Threat:  Both battlefield sites are threatened by encroaching development, both immediate and longer term.
Southside Roller Mill, Chase City
Threat:  The Southside Roller Mill’s private owner struggles to maintain and shield the structure from the ravages of time and weather, but, as in many rural towns, funds are generally insufficient for feasibility planning and rehabilitating the structure for a new community use.  
Virginia’s “Sidestepped” Towns: Columbia and Pamplin City
Threat:  The towns of Columbia and Pamplin City are similar in that their historic periods of greatest prosperity are behind them, as a result of evolving patterns of circulation and modes of transportation, but their immediate threats and opportunities for renewed success are divergent.
James River Viewshed
Threat:  A proposed Dominion Virginia Power transmission line project would cross 4.1 miles of the river atop as many as 17 towers ranging in height from 160 feet to 295 feet, compromising the scenic integrity of the historic cultural areas that comprise the James River. The towers and power lines would intrude on the public vantage points from the Historic Triangle, which includes the Colonial Parkway, Jamestown Island’s Black Point and Carter’s Grove Plantation, as well as water routes on the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Trail. The National Trust for Historic Preservation named the resource to its 2013 list of America’s 11 Most Endangered Historic Places.
Hook-Powell-Moorman Farm
Threat:  Much like the Booker T. Washington National Monument, located three miles away and listed as a Most Endangered Site in 2009, the Hook-Powell-Moorman farmstead is threatened by encroaching development along Route 122 and nearby Smith Mountain Lake.
Historic Schools In Virginia
Threat:  As budgets tighten and populations increase, increasingly there are frequent calls for the closure or demolition of historic school buildings across the state.
The Old Concrete Road
Threat:  While the mountain is under conservation easement, and is well-loved by both Roanoke citizens and its caretakers, the City of Roanoke’s Department of Parks and Recreation, it is recognized that the “rubble” retaining walls lining the road are suffering from deterioration and damage in multiple spots, due to root intrusion and normal freeze/thaw cycles and general wear and tear.
Pocahontas Island Historic District
Threat:  Residents and stewards of Pocahontas Island’s history have been unable to generate the necessary funds to fully interpret the site’s Underground Railroad narrative. The privately-owned house on Witten Street and the City of Petersburg-owned Jarratt House both suffer from years of neglect as a result of a lack of funding and need stabilization and repair. While some repairs have been made to the Jarratt House in the past decade, a portion of the rear wall collapsed several years ago.
Phlegar Building (Old Clerk’s Office)
Threat:  Deferred maintenance has taken its toll on the exterior of the building and the lack of a preservation plan makes its future uncertain.
Shockoe Bottom
Threat:  The public-private Revitalize RVA Plan contemplates intensive construction and redevelopment within the Shockoe Bottom flood plain, including a stadium, hotel, grocery store, retail space, office buildings, apartment buildings, parking garages, highway off-ramp modifications, and storm water flood-control infrastructure. These activities are likely to adversely impact historic and archaeological resources that are listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places (including those located within the Shockoe Valley & Tobacco Row Historic District and those identified in a multiple-property listing entitled The Slave Trade as a Commercial Enterprise in Richmond, Virginia).
Waterloo Bridge
Threat:  Waterloo Bridge was used for vehicular traffic until January 2014 when it was closed for reasons of safety; the wear and tear of sustained use and structural deficiencies in its iron material were no longer able to sustain a practical weight limit.   
READ THE STORIES OF THESE PRESERVATION SITES  HERE: http://preservationvirginia.org/press-room/release/2014-most-endangered-historic-sites-list-press-release
http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/10-facts-about-the-civil-war/
http://www.freelancestar.com/2013-11-04/articles/21780/battlefield-image-is-tops-stafford-amateur-wins-national-contest/

Many Civil War Battlefields Are Threatened By Development

Photo: Buddy Secor’s photo of the Pelham cannon in Spotsylvania won second place in the “preservation threats’ category

The United States government has identified 384 battles that had a significant impact on the larger war.  Many of these battlefields have been developed—turned into shopping malls, pizza parlors, housing developments, etc.—and many more are threatened by development.  Since the end of the Civil War, veterans and other citizens have struggled to preserve the fields on which Americans fought and died.  The Civil War Trust and its partners have preserved more than 36,000 acres of battlefield land.

"Nothing creates an emotional connection between present and past like walking in the footsteps of our Civil War soldiers," -Civil War author Jeff Shaara

~What if one day we can no longer walk there?

PRESERVATION VIRGINIA ANNOUNCES 2014 MOST ENDANGERED SITES LIST

Virginias Civil War Battlefields

(Bristoe Station Battlefield and Williamsburg Battlefield)

Threat Both battlefield sites are threatened by encroaching development, both immediate and longer term.

Southside Roller Mill, Chase City

Threat:  The Southside Roller Mill’s private owner struggles to maintain and shield the structure from the ravages of time and weather, but, as in many rural towns, funds are generally insufficient for feasibility planning and rehabilitating the structure for a new community use.  

Virginias SidesteppedTowns: Columbia and Pamplin City

Threat:  The towns of Columbia and Pamplin City are similar in that their historic periods of greatest prosperity are behind them, as a result of evolving patterns of circulation and modes of transportation, but their immediate threats and opportunities for renewed success are divergent.

James River Viewshed

Threat A proposed Dominion Virginia Power transmission line project would cross 4.1 miles of the river atop as many as 17 towers ranging in height from 160 feet to 295 feet, compromising the scenic integrity of the historic cultural areas that comprise the James River. The towers and power lines would intrude on the public vantage points from the Historic Triangle, which includes the Colonial Parkway, Jamestown Island’s Black Point and Carter’s Grove Plantation, as well as water routes on the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Trail. The National Trust for Historic Preservation named the resource to its 2013 list of America’s 11 Most Endangered Historic Places.

Hook-Powell-Moorman Farm

Threat:  Much like the Booker T. Washington National Monument, located three miles away and listed as a Most Endangered Site in 2009, the Hook-Powell-Moorman farmstead is threatened by encroaching development along Route 122 and nearby Smith Mountain Lake.

Historic Schools In Virginia

Threat:  As budgets tighten and populations increase, increasingly there are frequent calls for the closure or demolition of historic school buildings across the state.

The Old Concrete Road

Threat:  While the mountain is under conservation easement, and is well-loved by both Roanoke citizens and its caretakers, the City of Roanoke’s Department of Parks and Recreation, it is recognized that the “rubble” retaining walls lining the road are suffering from deterioration and damage in multiple spots, due to root intrusion and normal freeze/thaw cycles and general wear and tear.

Pocahontas Island Historic District

Threat Residents and stewards of Pocahontas Island’s history have been unable to generate the necessary funds to fully interpret the site’s Underground Railroad narrative. The privately-owned house on Witten Street and the City of Petersburg-owned Jarratt House both suffer from years of neglect as a result of a lack of funding and need stabilization and repair. While some repairs have been made to the Jarratt House in the past decade, a portion of the rear wall collapsed several years ago.

Phlegar Building (Old Clerks Office)

Threat:  Deferred maintenance has taken its toll on the exterior of the building and the lack of a preservation plan makes its future uncertain.

Shockoe Bottom

Threat The public-private Revitalize RVA Plan contemplates intensive construction and redevelopment within the Shockoe Bottom flood plain, including a stadium, hotel, grocery store, retail space, office buildings, apartment buildings, parking garages, highway off-ramp modifications, and storm water flood-control infrastructure. These activities are likely to adversely impact historic and archaeological resources that are listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places (including those located within the Shockoe Valley & Tobacco Row Historic District and those identified in a multiple-property listing entitled The Slave Trade as a Commercial Enterprise in Richmond, Virginia).

Waterloo Bridge

Threat:  Waterloo Bridge was used for vehicular traffic until January 2014 when it was closed for reasons of safety; the wear and tear of sustained use and structural deficiencies in its iron material were no longer able to sustain a practical weight limit.   

READ THE STORIES OF THESE PRESERVATION SITES  HERE: http://preservationvirginia.org/press-room/release/2014-most-endangered-historic-sites-list-press-release

http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/10-facts-about-the-civil-war/

http://www.freelancestar.com/2013-11-04/articles/21780/battlefield-image-is-tops-stafford-amateur-wins-national-contest/

Two Unidentified Soldiers In Union Uniforms Drinking Whiskey And Playing Cards


WHISKEY SKIN 1 wine glass Scotch or Irish whiskey 1 piece of lemon peel Add the above to a tumbler and fill one-half full of boiling water. This is called a Columbia Skin in Boston.From Bon-Vivant’s Companion by Jerry Thomas, 1862.
Thomas finished The Bar-Tender’s Guide (alternately titled How to Mix Drinks or The Bon-Vivant’s Companion), the first drink book ever published in the United States. The book collected and codified what was then an oral tradition of recipes from the early days of cocktails, including some of his own creations; the guide laid down the principles for formulating mixed drinks of all categories
Digital ID:  (digital file from original item) ppmsca 33415 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.33415 
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-33415 (digital file from original item)
Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

Two Unidentified Soldiers In Union Uniforms Drinking Whiskey And Playing Cards

WHISKEY SKIN

1 wine glass Scotch or Irish whiskey
1 piece of lemon peel

Add the above to a tumbler and fill one-half full of boiling water. This is called a Columbia Skin in Boston.
From Bon-Vivant’s Companion by Jerry Thomas, 1862.

Thomas finished The Bar-Tender’s Guide (alternately titled How to Mix Drinks or The Bon-Vivant’s Companion), the first drink book ever published in the United States. The book collected and codified what was then an oral tradition of recipes from the early days of cocktails, including some of his own creations; the guide laid down the principles for formulating mixed drinks of all categories

Three Unidentified Soldiers Playing Cards, Smoking, And Drinking In Front Of American Flag
Liquor- One soldier analyzed one issue of whiskey and with a straight face adjudged it to be a combination of “bark juice, tar-water, turpentine, brown sugar, lamp-oil and alcohol.” The potency of the liquor is readily evident from some of the nicknames given to it: “Old Red Eye,” “Rifle Knock-Knee,” “How Come You So,” and “Help Me to Sleep, Mother.”
Gambling- “The temptations that will beset you will be very great,” a Mississippi man, already a veteran in the Civil War, warned his newly enlisted younger brother. The evil he warned of wasn’t treason or desertion or theft. It was cards. “Of all the evil practices that abound in Camp, gambling is the most pernicious and fraught with the most direful consequences.”
Smoking-By the 1800’s, many people had begun using small amounts of tobacco. Some chewed it. Others smoked it occasionally in a pipe, or they hand-rolled a cigarette or cigar. On the average, people smoked about 40 cigarettes a year. The first commercial cigarettes were made in 1865 by Washington Duke on his 300-acre farm in Raleigh, North Carolina. His hand-rolled cigarettes were sold to soldiers at the end of the Civil War.
PHOTO: Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print
http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/civil_war_series/3/sec3.htm
http://healthliteracy.worlded.org/docs/tobacco/Unit1/2history_of.html
 The life of Johnny Reb: The Common Soldier of the Confederacy by Bell Irvin Wiley

Three Unidentified Soldiers Playing Cards, Smoking, And Drinking In Front Of American Flag

  • Liquor- One soldier analyzed one issue of whiskey and with a straight face adjudged it to be a combination of “bark juice, tar-water, turpentine, brown sugar, lamp-oil and alcohol.” The potency of the liquor is readily evident from some of the nicknames given to it: “Old Red Eye,” “Rifle Knock-Knee,” “How Come You So,” and “Help Me to Sleep, Mother.”
  • Gambling- “The temptations that will beset you will be very great,” a Mississippi man, already a veteran in the Civil War, warned his newly enlisted younger brother. The evil he warned of wasn’t treason or desertion or theft. It was cards. “Of all the evil practices that abound in Camp, gambling is the most pernicious and fraught with the most direful consequences.”
  • Smoking-By the 1800’s, many people had begun using small amounts of tobacco. Some chewed it. Others smoked it occasionally in a pipe, or they hand-rolled a cigarette or cigar. On the average, people smoked about 40 cigarettes a year. The first commercial cigarettes were made in 1865 by Washington Duke on his 300-acre farm in Raleigh, North Carolina. His hand-rolled cigarettes were sold to soldiers at the end of the Civil War.

 Gangrene And Flesh Eating Maggots In The American Civil War
 This 1860’s photo was used as a teaching aid in medical schools. National Library of Medicine
The biggest killer in the U.S Civil War was not instant death by bullet or by cannonball: it was disease resulting from wounds. An estimated 388,500 men died from wounds and other illnesses, including gangrene. Doctors with dirty hands unknowingly infected wounds with gangrene-causing bacteria while trying to treat the injured soldiers.
Gangrene is a condition in which living tissue (skin, muscle, or bone) dies and decays. Gangrene most often affects the legs, feet, arms, and fingers, but it also can affect internal organs such as the intestine or gallbladder. Gangrene can occur when blood flow to an area of the body is blocked or when certain types of bacteria  *  invade a wound.
During the war, doctors noticed that the wounds of some of the soldiers were infested with maggots, which are the larvae of houseflies or blowflies. Those maggot-infested wounds tended to heal faster than those without maggots, because the maggots were eating the dead or decaying tissue that resulted from gangrene infection. Thus, the maggots were cleaning out the dead and decaying tissue, allowing the remaining tissue to heal. They were doing the work that surgeons do today to treat gangrene through Debridement of wounds.

Read more: http://www.humanillnesses.com/original/E-Ga/Gangrene.html#ixzz38QJYnLRQ
http://blog.cleveland.com/metro/2009/11/post_111.html
Zoom Info
 Gangrene And Flesh Eating Maggots In The American Civil War
 This 1860’s photo was used as a teaching aid in medical schools. National Library of Medicine
The biggest killer in the U.S Civil War was not instant death by bullet or by cannonball: it was disease resulting from wounds. An estimated 388,500 men died from wounds and other illnesses, including gangrene. Doctors with dirty hands unknowingly infected wounds with gangrene-causing bacteria while trying to treat the injured soldiers.
Gangrene is a condition in which living tissue (skin, muscle, or bone) dies and decays. Gangrene most often affects the legs, feet, arms, and fingers, but it also can affect internal organs such as the intestine or gallbladder. Gangrene can occur when blood flow to an area of the body is blocked or when certain types of bacteria  *  invade a wound.
During the war, doctors noticed that the wounds of some of the soldiers were infested with maggots, which are the larvae of houseflies or blowflies. Those maggot-infested wounds tended to heal faster than those without maggots, because the maggots were eating the dead or decaying tissue that resulted from gangrene infection. Thus, the maggots were cleaning out the dead and decaying tissue, allowing the remaining tissue to heal. They were doing the work that surgeons do today to treat gangrene through Debridement of wounds.

Read more: http://www.humanillnesses.com/original/E-Ga/Gangrene.html#ixzz38QJYnLRQ
http://blog.cleveland.com/metro/2009/11/post_111.html
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 Gangrene And Flesh Eating Maggots In The American Civil War

  • This 1860’s photo was used as a teaching aid in medical schools. National Library of Medicine

The biggest killer in the U.S Civil War was not instant death by bullet or by cannonball: it was disease resulting from wounds. An estimated 388,500 men died from wounds and other illnesses, including gangrene. Doctors with dirty hands unknowingly infected wounds with gangrene-causing bacteria while trying to treat the injured soldiers.

Gangrene is a condition in which living tissue (skin, muscle, or bone) dies and decays. Gangrene most often affects the legs, feet, arms, and fingers, but it also can affect internal organs such as the intestine or gallbladder. Gangrene can occur when blood flow to an area of the body is blocked or when certain types of bacteria * invade a wound.

During the war, doctors noticed that the wounds of some of the soldiers were infested with maggots, which are the larvae of houseflies or blowflies. Those maggot-infested wounds tended to heal faster than those without maggots, because the maggots were eating the dead or decaying tissue that resulted from gangrene infection. Thus, the maggots were cleaning out the dead and decaying tissue, allowing the remaining tissue to heal. They were doing the work that surgeons do today to treat gangrene through Debridement of wounds.

http://blog.cleveland.com/metro/2009/11/post_111.html