Unknown Pennsylvania Zouave-Style Jacket
A blue wool short jacket with tight weave pattern sharing characteristics of late war construction, trimmed with two welts of narrow red braid (similar to Birney?s Zouaves) giving the illusion of a false vest, with distinct sky blue cuffs beneath interwoven red sleeve braiding of unknown regimental association.
The jacket combines a false vest with a true short trimmed collar, shared characteristics that cannot be documented in a Civil War context. The combination of red piped trim and solid sky blue seems to be unique to Pennsylvania Civil War Zouave regiments. Apart from the perplexing exterior details, the coat is made with glazed brown cotton lining having a single interior pocket on the left side with separate striped glazed cotton lined sleeves, a characteristic usually, but not always associated with post-war construction.The nine small eagle buttons including some others are a combination of stamped Horstmann and post-Civil War Pettibone manufacture mixed with unmarked examples. Accepting that buttons are easily substituted, it should be pointed out that the Pettibone Manufacturing Company produced military buttons from about 1880 to 1920.
A number of the post-war Philadelphia militia commands and later Pennsylvania National Guard (PNG) regiments from 1870 onwards are known to have adopted widely variant Zouave-style uniforms during the 1865 to 1872 period before the popularity waned, but details are generally sparse. For example, the Gray Reserves, later the 1st Regiment PNG wore a ?dark blue chasseur coat and sky blue facings? from 1865 to 1869. The Philadelphia Fire Zouaves, later the 4th Regiment PNG, were uniformed in a ?blue jacket trimmed with red?with sky blue vest? from 1870 to 1873. (Lacking certain provenance this military uniform jacket cannot be substantively documented in a Civil War context), while the ambiguous style and finer points of construction would seem to point to an immediate post-war time frame. Still, it is impossible to say with absolute certainty the origin and usage of the coat except to say that it is American. 
Condition:  Jacket with scattered heavy external moth damage and heavy wear inside collar, about VG-. http://www.cowanauctions.com/auctions/item.aspx?id=34996

Unknown Pennsylvania Zouave-Style Jacket

A blue wool short jacket with tight weave pattern sharing characteristics of late war construction, trimmed with two welts of narrow red braid (similar to Birney?s Zouaves) giving the illusion of a false vest, with distinct sky blue cuffs beneath interwoven red sleeve braiding of unknown regimental association.

The jacket combines a false vest with a true short trimmed collar, shared characteristics that cannot be documented in a Civil War context. The combination of red piped trim and solid sky blue seems to be unique to Pennsylvania Civil War Zouave regiments. Apart from the perplexing exterior details, the coat is made with glazed brown cotton lining having a single interior pocket on the left side with separate striped glazed cotton lined sleeves, a characteristic usually, but not always associated with post-war construction.The nine small eagle buttons including some others are a combination of stamped Horstmann and post-Civil War Pettibone manufacture mixed with unmarked examples. Accepting that buttons are easily substituted, it should be pointed out that the Pettibone Manufacturing Company produced military buttons from about 1880 to 1920.

A number of the post-war Philadelphia militia commands and later Pennsylvania National Guard (PNG) regiments from 1870 onwards are known to have adopted widely variant Zouave-style uniforms during the 1865 to 1872 period before the popularity waned, but details are generally sparse. For example, the Gray Reserves, later the 1st Regiment PNG wore a ?dark blue chasseur coat and sky blue facings? from 1865 to 1869. The Philadelphia Fire Zouaves, later the 4th Regiment PNG, were uniformed in a ?blue jacket trimmed with red?with sky blue vest? from 1870 to 1873. (Lacking certain provenance this military uniform jacket cannot be substantively documented in a Civil War context), while the ambiguous style and finer points of construction would seem to point to an immediate post-war time frame. Still, it is impossible to say with absolute certainty the origin and usage of the coat except to say that it is American. 

Condition:  Jacket with scattered heavy external moth damage and heavy wear inside collar, about VG-. http://www.cowanauctions.com/auctions/item.aspx?id=34996

US Army Regulation M1853/55 Non-Rigid Knapsack,
Right shoulder strap stamped Wm Butterfield/New York with additional New York inspector’s stamp and Aug. 15. 1864 date. 
Condition: Knapsack shows significant damage to upper left front edge with a large quarter-sized hole in front flap. Leather straps dry and flaking but complete and without tears. Minor inside verdigris, G+. Cowan’s Auctions http://www.cowanauctions.com/auctions/item.aspx?id=33771
US Army Regulation M1853/55 Non-Rigid Knapsack,
Right shoulder strap stamped Wm Butterfield/New York with additional New York inspector’s stamp and Aug. 15. 1864 date. 
Condition: Knapsack shows significant damage to upper left front edge with a large quarter-sized hole in front flap. Leather straps dry and flaking but complete and without tears. Minor inside verdigris, G+. Cowan’s Auctions http://www.cowanauctions.com/auctions/item.aspx?id=33771

Rare CDV Of Woman Dressed As A Soldier

No back mark, with cryptic pencil identification of Leona Houston on verso with “from New Hampshire cdv album” in modern hand. “Leona Houston” or her alias could not be located in the extensive bibliography dedicated to women soldiers of the Civil War. It is therefore assumed that the civilian Leona, whatever her background, simply posed in military garb as a patriotic gesture or possibly in the guise of an adopted daughter associated with an unknown regiment. Clearly, there is no obvious attempt here to hide or alter her gender. She wears a custom three button sack coat and stylized M1858 officer’s hat with upturned brim and feather. A narrow welt along the trouser seam is indicative of staff rank. 

Condition:  The cdv is quite clear and virtually mint, EXC. Cowan’s Auctions
Rare CDV Of Woman Dressed As A Soldier

No back mark, with cryptic pencil identification of Leona Houston on verso with “from New Hampshire cdv album” in modern hand. “Leona Houston” or her alias could not be located in the extensive bibliography dedicated to women soldiers of the Civil War. It is therefore assumed that the civilian Leona, whatever her background, simply posed in military garb as a patriotic gesture or possibly in the guise of an adopted daughter associated with an unknown regiment. Clearly, there is no obvious attempt here to hide or alter her gender. She wears a custom three button sack coat and stylized M1858 officer’s hat with upturned brim and feather. A narrow welt along the trouser seam is indicative of staff rank. 

Condition:  The cdv is quite clear and virtually mint, EXC. Cowan’s Auctions

Ladies In Camp, ca. 1862
National Archives, Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer.
When the American Civil War broke out in 1861, women turned their attention, and their considerable energy, to the conflict. In both the North and the South, women gathered in aid societies, circulated petitions, and, at home, took over the masculine duties of running the household. While these activities kept the women at home busy, many women wanted to support their causes closer to the battlefield. Rather than face low-paying, grueling factory work or even prostitution, poorer women followed their husbands, brothers or fathers to camp.
Sara M. Evans Born for Liberty. (New York: Free Press Paperbacks, 1997) 

Ladies In Camp, ca. 1862

National Archives, Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer.

When the American Civil War broke out in 1861, women turned their attention, and their considerable energy, to the conflict. In both the North and the South, women gathered in aid societies, circulated petitions, and, at home, took over the masculine duties of running the household. While these activities kept the women at home busy, many women wanted to support their causes closer to the battlefield. Rather than face low-paying, grueling factory work or even prostitution, poorer women followed their husbands, brothers or fathers to camp.

Sara M. Evans Born for Liberty. (New York: Free Press Paperbacks, 1997) 

Made a correction to the fold3 information I posted on Black Dog Confederate Soldier Last night. The site had info errors and wrong dates posted.
Correct info has been added. The worst part about Tumblr is you cannot correct posts after they are reblogged 100 times..

Black Dog- Chief Of The Osage Indians And Confederate Soldier

Black Dog II 1827-1910

1876 (14-years after he was Captain of Company B

1st Osage Battalion, C.S.A. Confederate States of America

fought two battles in NW Arkansas during the Civil War)

Photo Taken Nineteen Hours After The Last Day’s Battle On The Field At Gettysburg 1863 
The turning point of the Civil War is the Battle of Gettysburg. From that day the Confederate cause began to wane. Few battles of modern times show such great percentage of loss. Out of the one hundred and sixty thousand men engaged on both sides, forty-four thousand were killed or wounded. Brady’s cameras reached the field of battle in time to perpetuate some of its scenes. The ghastliness of the pictures is such that it is with some hesitation that any of them are presented in these pages. It is on the horrors of war, however, that all pleas of peace are based. Only by depicting its gruesomeness can the age of arbitration be hastened. It is with this in mind that this photograph is here revealed. There is probably not another in existence that witnesses more fearful tragedy. 
The photograph is taken on the field of Gettysburg about nineteen hours after the last day’s battle. It shows a Union soldier terribly mutilated by a shell of a Confederate gun. His arm is torn off and may be seen on the ground near his musket. The shell that killed this soldier disemboweled him in its fiendishness. This picture is as wonderful as it is horrible and should do more in the interest of peace than any possible argument. 
Something of the bloodshed on the battlefield of Gettysburg may be understood when it is considered that the battlefield, which covered nearly twenty-five square miles, was literally strewn with dead bodies, many of them mutilated even worse than the one in this picture. The surviving veterans of Gettysburg have seen war’s most horrible aspects. Gallant and daring commanders led those brave men in that three days’ inferno, from the first to the third of July, in 1863.
The Project Gutenburg EBook of Original Photographs Taken on the Battlefields during the Civil War by Mathew Brady and Alexander Gardner

Photo Taken Nineteen Hours After The Last Day’s Battle On The Field At Gettysburg 1863 

The turning point of the Civil War is the Battle of Gettysburg. From that day the Confederate cause began to wane. Few battles of modern times show such great percentage of loss. Out of the one hundred and sixty thousand men engaged on both sides, forty-four thousand were killed or wounded. Brady’s cameras reached the field of battle in time to perpetuate some of its scenes. The ghastliness of the pictures is such that it is with some hesitation that any of them are presented in these pages. It is on the horrors of war, however, that all pleas of peace are based. Only by depicting its gruesomeness can the age of arbitration be hastened. It is with this in mind that this photograph is here revealed. There is probably not another in existence that witnesses more fearful tragedy.

The photograph is taken on the field of Gettysburg about nineteen hours after the last day’s battle. It shows a Union soldier terribly mutilated by a shell of a Confederate gun. His arm is torn off and may be seen on the ground near his musket. The shell that killed this soldier disemboweled him in its fiendishness. This picture is as wonderful as it is horrible and should do more in the interest of peace than any possible argument.

Something of the bloodshed on the battlefield of Gettysburg may be understood when it is considered that the battlefield, which covered nearly twenty-five square miles, was literally strewn with dead bodies, many of them mutilated even worse than the one in this picture. The surviving veterans of Gettysburg have seen war’s most horrible aspects. Gallant and daring commanders led those brave men in that three days’ inferno, from the first to the third of July, in 1863.

The Project Gutenburg EBook of Original Photographs Taken on the Battlefields during the Civil War by Mathew Brady and Alexander Gardner

Black Dog- Chief Of The Osage Indians And Confederate Soldier
Black Dog II 1827-1910
1876 (note: battle axe) (14-years after he was Captain of Company B
1st Osage Battalion, C.S.A. Confederate States of America
fought two battles in NW Arkansas during the Civil War)
During the Civil War, Black Dog and many of the Osage Indians joined the Confederate States Army. While other Osage Indians joined the 9th Kansas Volunteers as Union supporters, but they were determined to be too wild and untrainable for military service. They were then discharged from Kansas military service. In 1861 about 50 Osage Indians joined Colonel Tom Livingston’s Missouri Home Guards and fought with General Price at Wilsons Creek.
Black Dog and some of his tribe joined the 1st Osage Battalion, C.S.A. around 1862 whose commander was Major Broke Arm. This military unit was composed of three companies. He served as a Captain of Company B. Military records are incomplete on their activities, but its believed that this unit was involved at Pea Ridge and Prairie Grove. 
He was elected Principal Chief of the Osages in 1880 and died in 1910. A creek near Hominy is named Black Dog Creek and a township in Tulsa County , Oklahoma, is named Black Dog Township.
Black Dog died around 68 years old. He was reported to be about 6ft’ 2, and weighed around 220 pounds. He had several sons and daughters. None of his sons survived to manhood.
http://www.fold3.com/page/285838734_american_indians_of_the_mid_west/details/

Black Dog- Chief Of The Osage Indians And Confederate Soldier

Black Dog II 1827-1910
1876 (note: battle axe) (14-years after he was Captain of Company B
1st Osage Battalion, C.S.A. Confederate States of America
fought two battles in NW Arkansas during the Civil War)

During the Civil War, Black Dog and many of the Osage Indians joined the Confederate States Army. While other Osage Indians joined the 9th Kansas Volunteers as Union supporters, but they were determined to be too wild and untrainable for military service. They were then discharged from Kansas military service. In 1861 about 50 Osage Indians joined Colonel Tom Livingston’s Missouri Home Guards and fought with General Price at Wilsons Creek.

Black Dog and some of his tribe joined the 1st Osage Battalion, C.S.A. around 1862 whose commander was Major Broke Arm. This military unit was composed of three companies. He served as a Captain of Company B. Military records are incomplete on their activities, but its believed that this unit was involved at Pea Ridge and Prairie Grove. 

He was elected Principal Chief of the Osages in 1880 and died in 1910. A creek near Hominy is named Black Dog Creek and a township in Tulsa County , Oklahoma, is named Black Dog Township.

Black Dog died around 68 years old. He was reported to be about 6ft’ 2, and weighed around 220 pounds. He had several sons and daughters. None of his sons survived to manhood.

http://www.fold3.com/page/285838734_american_indians_of_the_mid_west/details/

Civil War Museum’s Severed Arm From Antietam’s Battlefield~

Long after the guns grew silent at Antietam, the earth yielded up a gruesome reminder of the bloodiest day of the American Civil War: a severed limb, now the focus of intense study at the National Museum of Civil War Medicine in Maryland. 

A Sharpsburg-area farmer is said to have found the human forearm while plowing a field two weeks after the 1862 battle. Officials at the museum in Frederick, Md., are trying to learn more about the limb in hopes of verifying that it’s a relic of the Battle of Antietam.

The muddy-looking right forearm, with skin and hand attached, was donated anonymously to the museum earlier this year, said Executive Director George Wunderlich. It had been displayed for several decades at a private museum in Sharpsburg in a glass-topped, pine case with a placard reading, “Human arm found on the Antietam Battlefield.”

"Being able to put the story of this unknown person before this country is very important to us," Wunderlich said. "His remains will tell a story that will relate us back to his sacrifice. This was what they gave for what they believed. If done properly, it’s a very poignant story."

The unidentified farmer who found the limb put it in a barrel of brine, according to Thomas McGrath’s 1997 book, “Maryland September: True Stories from the Antietam Campaign.” The farmer reportedly gave it to a Boonsboro physician, who is said to have more permanently preserved it with embalming fluid.

The arm’s owner was probably a small man less than 20 years old, said William Gardner, a former Marshall University forensic medicine instructor who examined it in March. Since the elbow joint is undamaged, with no surgical saw marks, the arm was likely removed somewhere between the shoulder and elbow, he said. The forearm skin and tendons appear to have been violently twisted.

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/11/md-civil-war-museum-gives_n_1418518.html

Private George Ruoss, Co. G, 7th New York Volunteers 1865-1866- This Photograph Shows The Ravages Of Osteomyelitis. 
 
According to the medical history on the verso of this photograph, “Private George Ruoss, Co. G, 7th New York Volunteers, aged twenty-seven years, was wounded at the South Side Railroad, near Petersburg, Virginia, on March 31st, 1865, by a conoidal musket ball, which struck the anterior and outer aspect of the right thigh…comminuting portions of the upper and middle thirds of the femur, and passed out posteriorly about the middle of the gluteal fold.” Ruoss was taken to the corps hospital at City Point and after one week transferred to a general hospital in Washington. Two and one half years later Ruoss was still in “generally feeble condition,” a patient at the Post Hospital.
Before the use of antiseptics infection was considered a normal part of the healing process. During the Civil War, however, five infections were recognized as abnormal: tetanus, hospital gangrene, pyemia, erysipelas, and osteo myelitis. While the first four had a fatality rate of over ninety percent, with death ocurring within weeks of infection, osteomyelitis, a chronic bone infection, lasted for years. Slowly eating away at the bones of the patient, the infection was responsible for the majority of amputations after the war. This photograph shows the ravages of osteomyelitis. Although his complete medical history is unavailable Private Ruoss, fortunate not to have contracted one of the four fatal hospital infections, apparently survived his extended hospital stay.
Photo Reed Brockway Bontecou (American, 1824–1907) Former attribution to: William Bell (American (born England) Liverpool 1831–1910 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/283206?rpp=20&pg=1&rndkey=20140410&ao=on&ft=*&deptids=19&pos=13

Private George Ruoss, Co. G, 7th New York Volunteers 1865-1866- This Photograph Shows The Ravages Of Osteomyelitis. 

 

  • According to the medical history on the verso of this photograph, “Private George Ruoss, Co. G, 7th New York Volunteers, aged twenty-seven years, was wounded at the South Side Railroad, near Petersburg, Virginia, on March 31st, 1865, by a conoidal musket ball, which struck the anterior and outer aspect of the right thigh…comminuting portions of the upper and middle thirds of the femur, and passed out posteriorly about the middle of the gluteal fold.” Ruoss was taken to the corps hospital at City Point and after one week transferred to a general hospital in Washington. Two and one half years later Ruoss was still in “generally feeble condition,” a patient at the Post Hospital.
  • Before the use of antiseptics infection was considered a normal part of the healing process. During the Civil War, however, five infections were recognized as abnormal: tetanus, hospital gangrene, pyemia, erysipelas, and osteo myelitis. While the first four had a fatality rate of over ninety percent, with death ocurring within weeks of infection, osteomyelitis, a chronic bone infection, lasted for years. Slowly eating away at the bones of the patient, the infection was responsible for the majority of amputations after the war. This photograph shows the ravages of osteomyelitis. Although his complete medical history is unavailable Private Ruoss, fortunate not to have contracted one of the four fatal hospital infections, apparently survived his extended hospital stay.

Photo Reed Brockway Bontecou (American, 1824–1907) Former attribution to: William Bell (American (born England) Liverpool 1831–1910 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)

http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/283206?rpp=20&pg=1&rndkey=20140410&ao=on&ft=*&deptids=19&pos=13

Stephen D. Wilbur 1865
Photo by Reed Brockway Bontecou (American, 1824–1907) Credit line: Gift of Stanley B. Burns, M.D. and The Burns Archive, 1992
Many Civil War surgeons reminiscing long after the war, lamented their lack of preparation for the difficulties of treating large numbers of severely wounded men.
 ‘Many of our surgeons had never seen the inside of the abdomen in a living subject…,’ one physician wrote, adding, 'Many of the surgeons of the Civil War had never witnessed a major amputation when they joined their regiments; very few of them had treated gunshot wounds.' Despite the lack of preparation, Union surgeons treated more than 400,000 wounded men–about 245,000 of them for gunshot or artillery wounds–and performed at least 40,000 operations. 
Less complete Confederate records show that fewer surgeons treated a similar number of patients. As would be expected, the numbers of surgeons grew exponentially as the war raged on. When the war began, there were 113 surgeons in the U.S. Army, of which 24 joined the Confederate army and 3 were dismissed for disloyalty. By war’s end, more than 12,000 surgeons had served in the Union army and about 3,200 in the Confederate.
http://www.historynet.com/the-truth-about-civil-war-surgery-2.htm
http://www.metmuseum.org/collections/search-the-collections/266769

Stephen D. Wilbur 1865

Photo by Reed Brockway Bontecou (American, 1824–1907) Credit line: Gift of Stanley B. Burns, M.D. and The Burns Archive, 1992

Many Civil War surgeons reminiscing long after the war, lamented their lack of preparation for the difficulties of treating large numbers of severely wounded men.

‘Many of our surgeons had never seen the inside of the abdomen in a living subject…,’ one physician wrote, adding, 'Many of the surgeons of the Civil War had never witnessed a major amputation when they joined their regiments; very few of them had treated gunshot wounds.' Despite the lack of preparation, Union surgeons treated more than 400,000 wounded men–about 245,000 of them for gunshot or artillery wounds–and performed at least 40,000 operations.

Less complete Confederate records show that fewer surgeons treated a similar number of patients. As would be expected, the numbers of surgeons grew exponentially as the war raged on. When the war began, there were 113 surgeons in the U.S. Army, of which 24 joined the Confederate army and 3 were dismissed for disloyalty. By war’s end, more than 12,000 surgeons had served in the Union army and about 3,200 in the Confederate.

http://www.historynet.com/the-truth-about-civil-war-surgery-2.htm

http://www.metmuseum.org/collections/search-the-collections/266769

Corporal Israel Spotts, Company G, 200th Pennsylvania Volunteers

Photo by Reed Brockway Bontecou (American, 1824–1907)

Dr. Bontecou’s patient history for Corporal Spotts explains that nearing the end of his treatment, the wounded soldier deserted from the hospital. Presumably he believed he was healthy enough to head for home after three years of hard service. Spotts died four months later, on September 20, 1865.

Stanley B. Burns/The Burns Archive, http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/266773

Post Civil War Lt. Henry O. Flipper’s Quest for Justice: 
"As Honorable A Record In The Army As Any Officer In It" In 1999, President Bill Clinton Issued Him A Full Pardon.
*If Ever There Was A Story That Should Be Told On Film-This Is It*
Born into slavery in Thomasville, Georgia, on March 21, 1856, Henry Ossian Flipper was appointed to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, in 1873. Over the next four years he overcame harassment, isolation, and insults to become West Point’s first African American graduate and the first African American commissioned officer in the regular U.S. Army. Flipper was stationed first at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, later served at Forts Elliott, Quitman, and Davis, Texas. He served as a signal officer and quartermaster, fought Apaches, installed telegraph lines, and supervised the building of roads. At Fort Sill, the young lieutenant directed the construction of a drainage system that helped prevent the spread of malaria. Still known as “Flipper’s Ditch,” the ditch is commemorated by a bronze marker at Fort Sill and the fort is listed as a National Historic Landmark.
In 1881, while serving at Fort Davis, Flipper’s commanding officer accused him of embezzling $3,791.77 from commissary funds. A court-martial found him not guilty of embezzlement but convicted him of conduct unbecoming an officer and ordered him dismissed from the Army.
After his dishonorable discharge, Flipper fought to clear his name as he pursued a career as an engineer and an expert on Spanish and Mexican land law. In 1898, a bill reinstating him into the Army and restoring his rank was introduced in Congress on his behalf. To bolster his case, he sent Congressman John A. T. Hull, chairman of the House Committee on Military Affairs, the letter (see link below) along with a brief supporting the bill’s passage. Flipper’s letter to Hull is an eloquent statement asking Congress for “that justice which every American citizen has the right to ask.” The bill and several later ones were tabled, and Flipper died in 1940 without vindication, but in 1976, the Army granted him an honorable discharge, and in 1999, President Bill Clinton issued him a full pardon.
The National Archives and Records Administration is pleased to present these documents from the career of a man who served his country with honor and fought injustice tenaciously.
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/henry_o_flipper/

Post Civil War Lt. Henry O. Flipper’s Quest for Justice: 

"As Honorable A Record In The Army As Any Officer In It" In 1999, President Bill Clinton Issued Him A Full Pardon.

*If Ever There Was A Story That Should Be Told On Film-This Is It*

Born into slavery in Thomasville, Georgia, on March 21, 1856, Henry Ossian Flipper was appointed to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, in 1873. Over the next four years he overcame harassment, isolation, and insults to become West Point’s first African American graduate and the first African American commissioned officer in the regular U.S. Army. Flipper was stationed first at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, later served at Forts Elliott, Quitman, and Davis, Texas. He served as a signal officer and quartermaster, fought Apaches, installed telegraph lines, and supervised the building of roads. At Fort Sill, the young lieutenant directed the construction of a drainage system that helped prevent the spread of malaria. Still known as “Flipper’s Ditch,” the ditch is commemorated by a bronze marker at Fort Sill and the fort is listed as a National Historic Landmark.

In 1881, while serving at Fort Davis, Flipper’s commanding officer accused him of embezzling $3,791.77 from commissary funds. A court-martial found him not guilty of embezzlement but convicted him of conduct unbecoming an officer and ordered him dismissed from the Army.

After his dishonorable discharge, Flipper fought to clear his name as he pursued a career as an engineer and an expert on Spanish and Mexican land law. In 1898, a bill reinstating him into the Army and restoring his rank was introduced in Congress on his behalf. To bolster his case, he sent Congressman John A. T. Hull, chairman of the House Committee on Military Affairs, the letter (see link below) along with a brief supporting the bill’s passage. Flipper’s letter to Hull is an eloquent statement asking Congress for “that justice which every American citizen has the right to ask.” The bill and several later ones were tabled, and Flipper died in 1940 without vindication, but in 1976, the Army granted him an honorable discharge, and in 1999, President Bill Clinton issued him a full pardon.

The National Archives and Records Administration is pleased to present these documents from the career of a man who served his country with honor and fought injustice tenaciously.

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/henry_o_flipper/

The Bayonet -Cold Steel
The Civil War Bayonet was nothing more than a sharpened piece of steel that infantrymen were issued. They would simply stick it on the muzzle of their rifles and off they go. It’s effectiveness was more psychological then physical.
Seeing a few thousand people running at you with large knives on the end of rifles could have a pretty frighting effect. However despite this only about 1% of Civil War casualties were actually a result of a bayonet wound.
Soldiers used the bayonet more often as an everyday tool around their camp rather than a weapon. There were a few instances where the bayonet made a prominent appearance. Such as during the Battle of Gettysburg when Union General Joshua Chamberlain ordered his men to fix bayonets and then charged down little round top completely routing the confederates there. These instances though were few and far between.
The use of “cold steel” to force the enemy to retreat was very successful in numerous small unit engagements at short range in the American Civil War, as most troops would retreat when charged while reloading (which could take up to a minute with loose powder even for trained troops). Although such charges inflicted few casualties, they often decided short engagements, and tactical possession of important defensive ground features. Additionally, bayonet drill could be used to rally men temporarily discomfited by enemy fire.
The Bloody Crucible of Courage: Fighting Methods and Combat Experience of the Civil War
http://www.civilwaracademy.com/civil-war-bayonet.html

The Bayonet -Cold Steel

The Civil War Bayonet was nothing more than a sharpened piece of steel that infantrymen were issued. They would simply stick it on the muzzle of their rifles and off they go. It’s effectiveness was more psychological then physical.

Seeing a few thousand people running at you with large knives on the end of rifles could have a pretty frighting effect. However despite this only about 1% of Civil War casualties were actually a result of a bayonet wound.

Soldiers used the bayonet more often as an everyday tool around their camp rather than a weapon. There were a few instances where the bayonet made a prominent appearance. Such as during the Battle of Gettysburg when Union General Joshua Chamberlain ordered his men to fix bayonets and then charged down little round top completely routing the confederates there. These instances though were few and far between.

The use of “cold steel” to force the enemy to retreat was very successful in numerous small unit engagements at short range in the American Civil War, as most troops would retreat when charged while reloading (which could take up to a minute with loose powder even for trained troops). Although such charges inflicted few casualties, they often decided short engagements, and tactical possession of important defensive ground features. Additionally, bayonet drill could be used to rally men temporarily discomfited by enemy fire.

The Bloody Crucible of Courage: Fighting Methods and Combat Experience of the Civil War

http://www.civilwaracademy.com/civil-war-bayonet.html

"Semper Fidelis"  The Marines In The Civil War-
Washington, D.C. Six marines with fixed bayonets at the Navy Yard
"A group of Union Marines, wearing dress uniforms and carrying Model 1842 muskets, at the Washington Navy Yard in 1864."
Civil War
1861-1865 — Civil War; nearly half of Marine Corps’ officers resign their commissions to join the New Confederate States Marine Corps — Confederate Marines’ roster reads 539 — A resolution introduced to Congress was one of the first attempts to disband the Corps; idea was tabled but the thought continued
18 June, 1866 — Another resolution to disband the Corps studied and dropped (21 Feb., 1867)
Nov. 19, 1868 — Marine Corps Emblem adopted (usually credited to CMC Jacob Zeilin; emblem nearly unchanged since that time) — The Marines’ Hymn first begins to be heard; no author credited.
1883 — Marine Corps’ motto — “Semper Fidelis” or “Always Faithful” adopted, replacing other well-known motto’s of “Fortitudine” (early 1800’s) and “By Sea and By Land” (1876).
1888 — John Phillip Sousa’s “Semper Fidelis” composed.
Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print
http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/USMC1.html

"Semper Fidelis"  The Marines In The Civil War-

Washington, D.C. Six marines with fixed bayonets at the Navy Yard

"A group of Union Marines, wearing dress uniforms and carrying Model 1842 muskets, at the Washington Navy Yard in 1864."

Civil War

  • 1861-1865 — Civil War; nearly half of Marine Corps’ officers resign their commissions to join the New Confederate States Marine Corps — Confederate Marines’ roster reads 539 — A resolution introduced to Congress was one of the first attempts to disband the Corps; idea was tabled but the thought continued
  • 18 June, 1866 — Another resolution to disband the Corps studied and dropped (21 Feb., 1867)
  • Nov. 19, 1868 — Marine Corps Emblem adopted (usually credited to CMC Jacob Zeilin; emblem nearly unchanged since that time) — The Marines’ Hymn first begins to be heard; no author credited.
  • 1883 — Marine Corps’ motto — “Semper Fidelis” or “Always Faithful” adopted, replacing other well-known motto’s of “Fortitudine” (early 1800’s) and “By Sea and By Land” (1876).
  • 1888 — John Phillip Sousa’s “Semper Fidelis” composed.

Officers of 37th New York Infantry
The 37th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment or the “Irish Rifles” was formed accepted by the State on May 25, 1861, and organized in New York City. The regiment mustered in the service of the United States on June 6 and 7, 1861 for two years of service to June 22, 1863.
During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 3 officers, 52 enlisted men; of wounds received in action, 2 officers, 24 enlisted men; of disease and other causes, 1 officer, 57 enlisted men; total, 6 officers, 113 enlisted men; aggregate, 119; of whom 2 enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy.
http://dmna.ny.gov/historic/reghist/civil/infantry/37thInf/37thInfMain.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/37th_New_York_Volunteer_Infantry_Regiment
Digital ID: (digital file from original item) ppmsca 34054 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.34054
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-34054 (digital file from original item) LC-B8184-7976 (b&w film copy neg.)
Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

Officers of 37th New York Infantry

The 37th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment or the “Irish Rifles” was formed accepted by the State on May 25, 1861, and organized in New York City. The regiment mustered in the service of the United States on June 6 and 7, 1861 for two years of service to June 22, 1863.

During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 3 officers, 52 enlisted men; of wounds received in action, 2 officers, 24 enlisted men; of disease and other causes, 1 officer, 57 enlisted men; total, 6 officers, 113 enlisted men; aggregate, 119; of whom 2 enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy.

http://dmna.ny.gov/historic/reghist/civil/infantry/37thInf/37thInfMain.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/37th_New_York_Volunteer_Infantry_Regiment