A Group Of Warm Spring Apache Scouts
Recruitment of Indian scouts was first authorized on 28 July 1866 by an act of Congress
"The President is authorized to enlist and employ in the Territories and Indian country a force of Indians not to exceed one thousand to act as scouts, who shall receive the pay and allowances of cavalry soldiers, and be discharged whenever the necessity for further employment is abated, at the discretion of the department commander.”
In the Indian wars following the U.S. Civil War, the Indian scouts were a fast-moving, aggressive, and knowledgeable asset to the U.S. army. They often proved to be immune to army notions of discipline and demeanor, but they proved expert in traversing the vast distances of the American West and providing intelligence—and often a shock force—to the soldiers who sought hostile Indians. Pawnee Scout leader Luther H. North commented, “Neither the Wild Tribes, nor the Government Indian Scouts ever adopted any of the white soldier’s tactics. They thought their own much better.” Another chief of scouts, Stanton G. Fisher, emphasized the importance of Indian Scouts by saying of the soldiers, “Uncle Sam’s boys are too slow for this business.”
There existed doubts as to whether Indian Scouts would remain faithful or whether they would betray the white soldiers and turn against them in conflict. The Cibicue Apaches were among the first regular Army Scouts.They are also the only recorded 19th-century incident in which Indian scouts turned against the U.S. Army at Cibicue Creek in Arizona Territory. These Apache scouts were asked to campaign against their own kin, resulting in a mutiny against the army soldiers. Three of the scouts were court-martialed and executed.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Army_Indian_Scouts

A Group Of Warm Spring Apache Scouts

Recruitment of Indian scouts was first authorized on 28 July 1866 by an act of Congress

"The President is authorized to enlist and employ in the Territories and Indian country a force of Indians not to exceed one thousand to act as scouts, who shall receive the pay and allowances of cavalry soldiers, and be discharged whenever the necessity for further employment is abated, at the discretion of the department commander.”

In the Indian wars following the U.S. Civil War, the Indian scouts were a fast-moving, aggressive, and knowledgeable asset to the U.S. army. They often proved to be immune to army notions of discipline and demeanor, but they proved expert in traversing the vast distances of the American West and providing intelligence—and often a shock force—to the soldiers who sought hostile Indians. Pawnee Scout leader Luther H. North commented, “Neither the Wild Tribes, nor the Government Indian Scouts ever adopted any of the white soldier’s tactics. They thought their own much better.” Another chief of scouts, Stanton G. Fisher, emphasized the importance of Indian Scouts by saying of the soldiers, “Uncle Sam’s boys are too slow for this business.”

There existed doubts as to whether Indian Scouts would remain faithful or whether they would betray the white soldiers and turn against them in conflict. The Cibicue Apaches were among the first regular Army Scouts.They are also the only recorded 19th-century incident in which Indian scouts turned against the U.S. Army at Cibicue Creek in Arizona Territory. These Apache scouts were asked to campaign against their own kin, resulting in a mutiny against the army soldiers. Three of the scouts were court-martialed and executed.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Army_Indian_Scouts

Unidentified Soldiers Of The 33rd United States Colored Troops

The 33rd was oganized January 31, 1863 or February 8, 1864, as 1st South Carolina Volunteers Colored Infantry. Attached to U. S. Forces, Port Royal Island, South Carolina, 10th Corps, Dept. of the South, to April, 1864. Mustered out January 31, 1866

"No officer in this regiment now doubts that the key to the successful prosecution of this war lies in the unlimited employment of black troops. Their superiority lies simply in the fact that they know the country, while white troops do not, and, moreover, that they have peculiarities of temperament, position, and motive which belong to them alone. Instead of leaving their homes and families to fight they are fighting for their homes and families, and they show the resolution and sagacity which a personal purpose gives. It would have been madness to attempt, with the bravest white troops what I have successfully accomplished with the black ones. Everything, even to the piloting of the vessels and the selection of the proper points for cannonading, was done by my own soldiers."
— Excerpt from February 1, 1863 report by Colonel T. W. Higginson, commander of the First Regiment South Carolina Volunteers (Union) after the January 23 - February 1, 1863 Expedition from Beaufort South Carolina, up the Saint Mary’s River in Georgia and Florida.
http://www.drbronsontours.com/bronson33rduscthistoryandstaugmembers.html

Unidentified Soldiers Of The 33rd United States Colored Troops

The 33rd was oganized January 31, 1863 or February 8, 1864, as 1st South Carolina Volunteers Colored Infantry. Attached to U. S. Forces, Port Royal Island, South Carolina, 10th Corps, Dept. of the South, to April, 1864. Mustered out January 31, 1866

"No officer in this regiment now doubts that the key to the successful prosecution of this war lies in the unlimited employment of black troops. Their superiority lies simply in the fact that they know the country, while white troops do not, and, moreover, that they have peculiarities of temperament, position, and motive which belong to them alone. Instead of leaving their homes and families to fight they are fighting for their homes and families, and they show the resolution and sagacity which a personal purpose gives. It would have been madness to attempt, with the bravest white troops what I have successfully accomplished with the black ones. Everything, even to the piloting of the vessels and the selection of the proper points for cannonading, was done by my own soldiers."

— Excerpt from February 1, 1863 report by Colonel T. W. Higginson, commander of the First Regiment South Carolina Volunteers (Union) after the January 23 - February 1, 1863 Expedition from Beaufort South Carolina, up the Saint Mary’s River in Georgia and Florida.

http://www.drbronsontours.com/bronson33rduscthistoryandstaugmembers.html

The two group portraits, taken at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, show Chiricahua Apache boys and girls at the time of their arrival in November 1886, and four months after arriving, in March 1887.
Back row (L to R): Hugh Chee, Frederick Eskelsejah (Fred’ k Eskelsijah), Clement Seanilzay, Samson Noran, Ernest Hogee. Middle row: Margaret Y. Nadasthilah. Front row (L to R): Humphrey Escharzay, Beatrice Kiahtel, Janette Pahgostatum, Bishop Eatennah, Basil Ekarden.
John N. Choate was commissioned by the school to make portraits of the students as a public relations effort showing the success of the school in assimilating the Indians. Attended by over 12,000 Native American children from more than 140 tribes between 1879 and 1918, Carlisle was the model for nearly 150 Indian schools. Upon arrival, school officials cut the children’s hair and exchanged their clothing for uniforms. Students were given Christian names, and were punished for speaking their native languages. Note the changes in dress, hair, and skin color. This group belonged to the Chiricahua Apache tribe, whose leader, the famous Geronimo, had surrendered with his followers in September 1886, marking the end of the Apache wars. The band, including 103 children, was taken prisoner and sent to Florida; many of the children were then taken to Carlisle School.
The photographer arranged the students in the same order in the later portrait. Scholars note that the “after” portraits followed established conventions of middle-class portraiture of the period, emphasizing the civilizing mission of the school. School founder Richard Platt described this goal in an 1892 speech “all the Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him, and save the man.”
Source: November 1886 photograph, National Museum of the American Indian, Washington D.C
"For 500 generations they flourished until newcomers came… much was lost; much was devalued, but much was also hidden away in the hearts of the dispossessed… …Their voices insist upon a hearing and the cumulative wisdom of their long residence in this land offers rich insights to those willing to listen. The challenge now is to find a way to make knowledge of the ancient traditions, the experience of change and the living reality accessible and available…” ~ excerpt from Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest: An Introduction by David M. Buerge
http://chnm.gmu.edu/cyh/primary-sources/290
Zoom Info
The two group portraits, taken at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, show Chiricahua Apache boys and girls at the time of their arrival in November 1886, and four months after arriving, in March 1887.
Back row (L to R): Hugh Chee, Frederick Eskelsejah (Fred’ k Eskelsijah), Clement Seanilzay, Samson Noran, Ernest Hogee. Middle row: Margaret Y. Nadasthilah. Front row (L to R): Humphrey Escharzay, Beatrice Kiahtel, Janette Pahgostatum, Bishop Eatennah, Basil Ekarden.
John N. Choate was commissioned by the school to make portraits of the students as a public relations effort showing the success of the school in assimilating the Indians. Attended by over 12,000 Native American children from more than 140 tribes between 1879 and 1918, Carlisle was the model for nearly 150 Indian schools. Upon arrival, school officials cut the children’s hair and exchanged their clothing for uniforms. Students were given Christian names, and were punished for speaking their native languages. Note the changes in dress, hair, and skin color. This group belonged to the Chiricahua Apache tribe, whose leader, the famous Geronimo, had surrendered with his followers in September 1886, marking the end of the Apache wars. The band, including 103 children, was taken prisoner and sent to Florida; many of the children were then taken to Carlisle School.
The photographer arranged the students in the same order in the later portrait. Scholars note that the “after” portraits followed established conventions of middle-class portraiture of the period, emphasizing the civilizing mission of the school. School founder Richard Platt described this goal in an 1892 speech “all the Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him, and save the man.”
Source: November 1886 photograph, National Museum of the American Indian, Washington D.C
"For 500 generations they flourished until newcomers came… much was lost; much was devalued, but much was also hidden away in the hearts of the dispossessed… …Their voices insist upon a hearing and the cumulative wisdom of their long residence in this land offers rich insights to those willing to listen. The challenge now is to find a way to make knowledge of the ancient traditions, the experience of change and the living reality accessible and available…” ~ excerpt from Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest: An Introduction by David M. Buerge
http://chnm.gmu.edu/cyh/primary-sources/290
Zoom Info

The two group portraits, taken at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, show Chiricahua Apache boys and girls at the time of their arrival in November 1886, and four months after arriving, in March 1887.

Back row (L to R): Hugh Chee, Frederick Eskelsejah (Fred’ k Eskelsijah), Clement Seanilzay, Samson Noran, Ernest Hogee. Middle row: Margaret Y. Nadasthilah. Front row (L to R): Humphrey Escharzay, Beatrice Kiahtel, Janette Pahgostatum, Bishop Eatennah, Basil Ekarden.

John N. Choate was commissioned by the school to make portraits of the students as a public relations effort showing the success of the school in assimilating the Indians. Attended by over 12,000 Native American children from more than 140 tribes between 1879 and 1918, Carlisle was the model for nearly 150 Indian schools. Upon arrival, school officials cut the children’s hair and exchanged their clothing for uniforms. Students were given Christian names, and were punished for speaking their native languages. Note the changes in dress, hair, and skin color. This group belonged to the Chiricahua Apache tribe, whose leader, the famous Geronimo, had surrendered with his followers in September 1886, marking the end of the Apache wars. The band, including 103 children, was taken prisoner and sent to Florida; many of the children were then taken to Carlisle School.

The photographer arranged the students in the same order in the later portrait. Scholars note that the “after” portraits followed established conventions of middle-class portraiture of the period, emphasizing the civilizing mission of the school. School founder Richard Platt described this goal in an 1892 speech “all the Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him, and save the man.”

Source: November 1886 photograph, National Museum of the American Indian, Washington D.C

"For 500 generations they flourished until newcomers came… much was lost; much was devalued, but much was also hidden away in the hearts of the dispossessed…

…Their voices insist upon a hearing and the cumulative wisdom of their long residence in this land offers rich insights to those willing to listen. The challenge now is to find a way to make knowledge of the ancient traditions, the experience of change and the living reality accessible and available…”

~ excerpt from Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest: An Introduction by David M. Buerge

http://chnm.gmu.edu/cyh/primary-sources/290

American Indian Boarding Schools Haunt Many - Audio (NPR)

The Indian boarding school movement began in the post Civil War era

For the government, it was a possible solution to the so-called Indian problem. For the tens of thousands of Indians who went to boarding schools, it’s largely remembered as a time of abuse and desecration of culture.

The government still operates a handful of off-reservation boarding schools, but funding is in decline. Now many American Indians are fighting to keep the schools open.

'Kill the Indian … Save the Man'

An Army officer, Richard Pratt, founded the first of these schools. He based it on an education program he had developed in an Indian prison. He described his philosophy in a speech he gave in 1892.

"A great general has said that the only good Indian is a dead one, and that high sanction of his destruction has been an enormous factor in promoting Indian massacres. In a sense, I agree with the sentiment, but only in this: that all the Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him, and save the man."

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16516865

Genocide Of The Native American Peoples- Post Civil War Years America.  "kill the Indian and save the man"
The Indian boarding school movement began in the post Civil War era when idealistic reformers turned their attention to the plight of Indian people. Whereas before many Americans regarded the native people with either fear or loathing, the reformers believed that with the proper education and treatment Indians could become just like other citizens. ie “Assimilation” = (Genocide)
One of the first efforts to accomplish this goal was the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, founded by Captain Richard Henry Pratt in 1879. Pratt was a leading proponent of the assimilation through education policy. Believing that Indian ways were inferior to those of whites, he subscribed to the principle, “kill the Indian and save the man.”
Children were usually immersed in European-American culture through appearance changes with haircuts, were forbidden to speak their native languages, and traditional names were replaced by new European-American names. The experience of the schools was often harsh, especially for the younger children who were separated from their families. In numerous ways, they were encouraged or forced to abandon their Native American identities and cultures. The number of Native American children in the boarding schools reached a peak in the 1970s, with an estimated enrollment of 60,000 in 1973. Investigations of the later twentieth century have revealed many documented cases of sexual, manual, physical and mental abuse occurring at such schools.
Arriving at the boarding schools, their lives usually altered dramatically. They were given short haircuts (a source of shame for boys of many tribes), uniforms, and English names. They were not allowed to speak their own languages, even between each other, and they were expected to attend church services and encouraged to convert to Christianity. Discipline was stiff in many schools (as it was in families and other areas of society), and it often included chores and punishments.
The following is a quote from Anna Moore regarding the Phoenix Indian School:
"If we were not finished [scrubbing the dining room floors] when the 8 a.m. whistle sounded, the dining room matron would go around strapping us while we were still on our hands and knees."
https://content.lib.washington.edu/aipnw/marr.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Indian_boarding_schools
Zoom Info
Genocide Of The Native American Peoples- Post Civil War Years America.  "kill the Indian and save the man"
The Indian boarding school movement began in the post Civil War era when idealistic reformers turned their attention to the plight of Indian people. Whereas before many Americans regarded the native people with either fear or loathing, the reformers believed that with the proper education and treatment Indians could become just like other citizens. ie “Assimilation” = (Genocide)
One of the first efforts to accomplish this goal was the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, founded by Captain Richard Henry Pratt in 1879. Pratt was a leading proponent of the assimilation through education policy. Believing that Indian ways were inferior to those of whites, he subscribed to the principle, “kill the Indian and save the man.”
Children were usually immersed in European-American culture through appearance changes with haircuts, were forbidden to speak their native languages, and traditional names were replaced by new European-American names. The experience of the schools was often harsh, especially for the younger children who were separated from their families. In numerous ways, they were encouraged or forced to abandon their Native American identities and cultures. The number of Native American children in the boarding schools reached a peak in the 1970s, with an estimated enrollment of 60,000 in 1973. Investigations of the later twentieth century have revealed many documented cases of sexual, manual, physical and mental abuse occurring at such schools.
Arriving at the boarding schools, their lives usually altered dramatically. They were given short haircuts (a source of shame for boys of many tribes), uniforms, and English names. They were not allowed to speak their own languages, even between each other, and they were expected to attend church services and encouraged to convert to Christianity. Discipline was stiff in many schools (as it was in families and other areas of society), and it often included chores and punishments.
The following is a quote from Anna Moore regarding the Phoenix Indian School:
"If we were not finished [scrubbing the dining room floors] when the 8 a.m. whistle sounded, the dining room matron would go around strapping us while we were still on our hands and knees."
https://content.lib.washington.edu/aipnw/marr.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Indian_boarding_schools
Zoom Info
Genocide Of The Native American Peoples- Post Civil War Years America.  "kill the Indian and save the man"
The Indian boarding school movement began in the post Civil War era when idealistic reformers turned their attention to the plight of Indian people. Whereas before many Americans regarded the native people with either fear or loathing, the reformers believed that with the proper education and treatment Indians could become just like other citizens. ie “Assimilation” = (Genocide)
One of the first efforts to accomplish this goal was the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, founded by Captain Richard Henry Pratt in 1879. Pratt was a leading proponent of the assimilation through education policy. Believing that Indian ways were inferior to those of whites, he subscribed to the principle, “kill the Indian and save the man.”
Children were usually immersed in European-American culture through appearance changes with haircuts, were forbidden to speak their native languages, and traditional names were replaced by new European-American names. The experience of the schools was often harsh, especially for the younger children who were separated from their families. In numerous ways, they were encouraged or forced to abandon their Native American identities and cultures. The number of Native American children in the boarding schools reached a peak in the 1970s, with an estimated enrollment of 60,000 in 1973. Investigations of the later twentieth century have revealed many documented cases of sexual, manual, physical and mental abuse occurring at such schools.
Arriving at the boarding schools, their lives usually altered dramatically. They were given short haircuts (a source of shame for boys of many tribes), uniforms, and English names. They were not allowed to speak their own languages, even between each other, and they were expected to attend church services and encouraged to convert to Christianity. Discipline was stiff in many schools (as it was in families and other areas of society), and it often included chores and punishments.
The following is a quote from Anna Moore regarding the Phoenix Indian School:
"If we were not finished [scrubbing the dining room floors] when the 8 a.m. whistle sounded, the dining room matron would go around strapping us while we were still on our hands and knees."
https://content.lib.washington.edu/aipnw/marr.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Indian_boarding_schools
Zoom Info
Genocide Of The Native American Peoples- Post Civil War Years America.  "kill the Indian and save the man"
The Indian boarding school movement began in the post Civil War era when idealistic reformers turned their attention to the plight of Indian people. Whereas before many Americans regarded the native people with either fear or loathing, the reformers believed that with the proper education and treatment Indians could become just like other citizens. ie “Assimilation” = (Genocide)
One of the first efforts to accomplish this goal was the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, founded by Captain Richard Henry Pratt in 1879. Pratt was a leading proponent of the assimilation through education policy. Believing that Indian ways were inferior to those of whites, he subscribed to the principle, “kill the Indian and save the man.”
Children were usually immersed in European-American culture through appearance changes with haircuts, were forbidden to speak their native languages, and traditional names were replaced by new European-American names. The experience of the schools was often harsh, especially for the younger children who were separated from their families. In numerous ways, they were encouraged or forced to abandon their Native American identities and cultures. The number of Native American children in the boarding schools reached a peak in the 1970s, with an estimated enrollment of 60,000 in 1973. Investigations of the later twentieth century have revealed many documented cases of sexual, manual, physical and mental abuse occurring at such schools.
Arriving at the boarding schools, their lives usually altered dramatically. They were given short haircuts (a source of shame for boys of many tribes), uniforms, and English names. They were not allowed to speak their own languages, even between each other, and they were expected to attend church services and encouraged to convert to Christianity. Discipline was stiff in many schools (as it was in families and other areas of society), and it often included chores and punishments.
The following is a quote from Anna Moore regarding the Phoenix Indian School:
"If we were not finished [scrubbing the dining room floors] when the 8 a.m. whistle sounded, the dining room matron would go around strapping us while we were still on our hands and knees."
https://content.lib.washington.edu/aipnw/marr.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Indian_boarding_schools
Zoom Info

Genocide Of The Native American Peoples- Post Civil War Years America.  "kill the Indian and save the man"

The Indian boarding school movement began in the post Civil War era when idealistic reformers turned their attention to the plight of Indian people. Whereas before many Americans regarded the native people with either fear or loathing, the reformers believed that with the proper education and treatment Indians could become just like other citizens. ie “Assimilation” = (Genocide)

One of the first efforts to accomplish this goal was the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, founded by Captain Richard Henry Pratt in 1879. Pratt was a leading proponent of the assimilation through education policy. Believing that Indian ways were inferior to those of whites, he subscribed to the principle, “kill the Indian and save the man.”

Children were usually immersed in European-American culture through appearance changes with haircuts, were forbidden to speak their native languages, and traditional names were replaced by new European-American names. The experience of the schools was often harsh, especially for the younger children who were separated from their families. In numerous ways, they were encouraged or forced to abandon their Native American identities and cultures. The number of Native American children in the boarding schools reached a peak in the 1970s, with an estimated enrollment of 60,000 in 1973. Investigations of the later twentieth century have revealed many documented cases of sexual, manual, physical and mental abuse occurring at such schools.

Arriving at the boarding schools, their lives usually altered dramatically. They were given short haircuts (a source of shame for boys of many tribes), uniforms, and English names. They were not allowed to speak their own languages, even between each other, and they were expected to attend church services and encouraged to convert to Christianity. Discipline was stiff in many schools (as it was in families and other areas of society), and it often included chores and punishments.

The following is a quote from Anna Moore regarding the Phoenix Indian School:

"If we were not finished [scrubbing the dining room floors] when the 8 a.m. whistle sounded, the dining room matron would go around strapping us while we were still on our hands and knees."

https://content.lib.washington.edu/aipnw/marr.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Indian_boarding_schools

Henry Berry Lowry (1845 - ?) 
 Known to some as a local hero and to others as a criminal, Henry Berry Lowry and his armed band, consisting of Lumbees, African Americans and one “buckskin” Scot, fought the Home Guard during the Civil War and the Ku Klux Klan during Reconstruction.  The outlaw robbed from planters and redistributed wealth.  He mysteriously disappeared after robbing $28,000 from the sheriff’s office in 1872.  
"Tin-type of members of the Henry Berry Lowry posse, c. 1870. Verso: left to right: Frank McKay, Archie McCallum, and William McCallum." Image courtesy of the North Carolina Museum of History. Available from http://ncmuseumofhistory.org/workshops/indian/lowry.htm One of twelve children, Lowry was born in 1845, a man of mixed Native American, African American and Anglo heritage.  He claimed to be Tuscarora. During the Civil War, Confederate armies and the state of North Carolina conscripted Lumbees to build fortifications in Wilmington and elsewhere.  Many dodged the conscription agents and hid out in the county.  As a result, the Home Guard tracked down dodgers and conflict resulted.  The eighteen-year-old Lowry formed a guerrilla band that fought back.  In 1864, Lowry killed two men.  One accused him of stealing hogs and the other, a conscription officer, insulted and mistreated women in Lowry’s community.  The Home Guard could not find Lowry, but they “tried, convicted, and executed” his brother and father for the crime.  During Reconstruction, Lowry waged war against the Ku Klux Klan and continued raiding plantations and members of what would become the Democratic White Supremacy movement.  Republican governor, William Woods Holden, outlawed Lowry in 1869 and the state offered $12,000 for his capture: dead or alive.  No bounty hunter ever asked for the amount, but authorities tried various ways to capture Lowry.  In one instance, the Police Guard held hostage some wives of the Lowry band.  Lowry threatened to implement widespread violence if the women were not released.  Knowing Lowry made genuine threats, the Guard colonel released the wives.Lowry’s activities have become legend.  Many consider him a Robin Hood, for he robbed (and killed) the powerful in Robeson County.  He was also captured three times and found a way to escape each time—once, filing through jail bars.  Legend says he single-handedly routed 18 militiamen in one gunfight near the Lumber River.  His last robbery and disappearance contribute greatly to his mystique: In 1872, he mysteriously disappeared after robbing the local sheriff’s office and taking $28,000.  His death is disputed.  Some believe he died during or shortly after the heist, but others reported seeing him a few years later sitting quietly at a funeral.  In the 1930s, some claimed that he was still alive.  After his 1872 disappearance, the Lowry Band was without its namesake and leader.  Their exploits ceased, and in few years, almost every member of the band had been captured or killed. 
-North Carolina History Project
Zoom Info
Henry Berry Lowry (1845 - ?) 
 Known to some as a local hero and to others as a criminal, Henry Berry Lowry and his armed band, consisting of Lumbees, African Americans and one “buckskin” Scot, fought the Home Guard during the Civil War and the Ku Klux Klan during Reconstruction.  The outlaw robbed from planters and redistributed wealth.  He mysteriously disappeared after robbing $28,000 from the sheriff’s office in 1872.  
"Tin-type of members of the Henry Berry Lowry posse, c. 1870. Verso: left to right: Frank McKay, Archie McCallum, and William McCallum." Image courtesy of the North Carolina Museum of History. Available from http://ncmuseumofhistory.org/workshops/indian/lowry.htm One of twelve children, Lowry was born in 1845, a man of mixed Native American, African American and Anglo heritage.  He claimed to be Tuscarora. During the Civil War, Confederate armies and the state of North Carolina conscripted Lumbees to build fortifications in Wilmington and elsewhere.  Many dodged the conscription agents and hid out in the county.  As a result, the Home Guard tracked down dodgers and conflict resulted.  The eighteen-year-old Lowry formed a guerrilla band that fought back.  In 1864, Lowry killed two men.  One accused him of stealing hogs and the other, a conscription officer, insulted and mistreated women in Lowry’s community.  The Home Guard could not find Lowry, but they “tried, convicted, and executed” his brother and father for the crime.  During Reconstruction, Lowry waged war against the Ku Klux Klan and continued raiding plantations and members of what would become the Democratic White Supremacy movement.  Republican governor, William Woods Holden, outlawed Lowry in 1869 and the state offered $12,000 for his capture: dead or alive.  No bounty hunter ever asked for the amount, but authorities tried various ways to capture Lowry.  In one instance, the Police Guard held hostage some wives of the Lowry band.  Lowry threatened to implement widespread violence if the women were not released.  Knowing Lowry made genuine threats, the Guard colonel released the wives.Lowry’s activities have become legend.  Many consider him a Robin Hood, for he robbed (and killed) the powerful in Robeson County.  He was also captured three times and found a way to escape each time—once, filing through jail bars.  Legend says he single-handedly routed 18 militiamen in one gunfight near the Lumber River.  His last robbery and disappearance contribute greatly to his mystique: In 1872, he mysteriously disappeared after robbing the local sheriff’s office and taking $28,000.  His death is disputed.  Some believe he died during or shortly after the heist, but others reported seeing him a few years later sitting quietly at a funeral.  In the 1930s, some claimed that he was still alive.  After his 1872 disappearance, the Lowry Band was without its namesake and leader.  Their exploits ceased, and in few years, almost every member of the band had been captured or killed. 
-North Carolina History Project
Zoom Info

Henry Berry Lowry (1845 - ?)

Known to some as a local hero and to others as a criminal, Henry Berry Lowry and his armed band, consisting of Lumbees, African Americans and one “buckskin” Scot, fought the Home Guard during the Civil War and the Ku Klux Klan during Reconstruction.  The outlaw robbed from planters and redistributed wealth.  He mysteriously disappeared after robbing $28,000 from the sheriff’s office in 1872.  

"Tin-type of members of the Henry Berry Lowry posse, c. 1870. Verso: left to right: Frank McKay, Archie McCallum, and William McCallum." Image courtesy of the North Carolina Museum of History. Available from http://ncmuseumofhistory.org/workshops/indian/lowry.htm

One of twelve children, Lowry was born in 1845, a man of mixed Native American, African American and Anglo heritage.  He claimed to be Tuscarora. During the Civil War, Confederate armies and the state of North Carolina conscripted Lumbees to build fortifications in Wilmington and elsewhere.  Many dodged the conscription agents and hid out in the county.  As a result, the Home Guard tracked down dodgers and conflict resulted.  The eighteen-year-old Lowry formed a guerrilla band that fought back.  

In 1864, Lowry killed two men.  One accused him of stealing hogs and the other, a conscription officer, insulted and mistreated women in Lowry’s community.  The Home Guard could not find Lowry, but they “tried, convicted, and executed” his brother and father for the crime.  

During Reconstruction, Lowry waged war against the Ku Klux Klan and continued raiding plantations and members of what would become the Democratic White Supremacy movement.  Republican governor, William Woods Holden, outlawed Lowry in 1869 and the state offered $12,000 for his capture: dead or alive.  No bounty hunter ever asked for the amount, but authorities tried various ways to capture Lowry.  In one instance, the Police Guard held hostage some wives of the Lowry band.  Lowry threatened to implement widespread violence if the women were not released.  Knowing Lowry made genuine threats, the Guard colonel released the wives.

Lowry’s activities have become legend.  Many consider him a Robin Hood, for he robbed (and killed) the powerful in Robeson County.  He was also captured three times and found a way to escape each time—once, filing through jail bars.  Legend says he single-handedly routed 18 militiamen in one gunfight near the Lumber River.  His last robbery and disappearance contribute greatly to his mystique: In 1872, he mysteriously disappeared after robbing the local sheriff’s office and taking $28,000.  

His death is disputed.  Some believe he died during or shortly after the heist, but others reported seeing him a few years later sitting quietly at a funeral.  In the 1930s, some claimed that he was still alive.  

After his 1872 disappearance, the Lowry Band was without its namesake and leader.  Their exploits ceased, and in few years, almost every member of the band had been captured or killed. 

-North Carolina History Project

What Happened To The Native People? Post Civil War Genocide 
“If the white men take my country, where can I go?” -Sitting Bull

After the Civil War, thousands of Americans poured into the Great Plains on a collision course with western Indian tribes. Homesteaders, ranchers, and miners encroached on Indian lands and threatened native game and ways of life. They called on the U.S. Army to crush Indian resistance and confine tribes to government-controlled reservations.


In the decades following the Civil War, the U.S. Army fought dozens of engagements with Indians in the West. At the beginning of the Civil War the Native Americans were still in possession of one half of the current United States territory. 10 years later the Native Americans were placed on reservations and it was government policy to get rid of the Native American culture in favor of having the Native Americans integrated into the American society.
The Native American population was decimated, How did such a population reduction occur?
Two things happened:
   All surviving Native People were forced to live in reservations by the end of the Nineteenth Century
   The buffalo herds were all but wiped out thus severely hindering the natural living patterns of the Native People
The impact of these can be seen in the following :
1840-Estimated number of Native People 500,000 
Estimated number of Bison 13,000,000


1885 Estimated number of Native People 270,000
Estimated number of bison 200
References: http://cassadae.wordpress.com/2006/11/15/native-americans-post-civil-war-history-mid-term-essay/
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/what_happened_to_the_native_peop.htm
http://amhistory.si.edu/militaryhistory/printable/section.asp?id=6

What Happened To The Native People? Post Civil War Genocide

“If the white men take my country, where can I go?” -Sitting Bull

After the Civil War, thousands of Americans poured into the Great Plains on a collision course with western Indian tribes. Homesteaders, ranchers, and miners encroached on Indian lands and threatened native game and ways of life. They called on the U.S. Army to crush Indian resistance and confine tribes to government-controlled reservations.

In the decades following the Civil War, the U.S. Army fought dozens of engagements with Indians in the West. At the beginning of the Civil War the Native Americans were still in possession of one half of the current United States territory. 10 years later the Native Americans were placed on reservations and it was government policy to get rid of the Native American culture in favor of having the Native Americans integrated into the American society.

The Native American population was decimated, How did such a population reduction occur?

Two things happened:

  •    All surviving Native People were forced to live in reservations by the end of the Nineteenth Century
  •    The buffalo herds were all but wiped out thus severely hindering the natural living patterns of the Native People

The impact of these can be seen in the following :

  • 1840-Estimated number of Native People 500,000 
  • Estimated number of Bison 13,000,000

  • 1885 Estimated number of Native People 270,000
  • Estimated number of bison 200

References: http://cassadae.wordpress.com/2006/11/15/native-americans-post-civil-war-history-mid-term-essay/

http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/what_happened_to_the_native_peop.htm

http://amhistory.si.edu/militaryhistory/printable/section.asp?id=6

 Sarah Graves- Eyewitness To History- Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936-1938
NOTES
Childhood and girlhood memories are vivid to Sarah Frances Shaw Graves, an 87 year old woman whose indomitable courage and steadfast purpose overcame obstacles and made possible the ownership of the 120 acre farm near Skidmore, on R. F. D. #4, where she lives with her bachelor son, Arza Alexander Graves…
Sarah Frances Shaw Graves, Age 87
"I was born March 23, 1850 in Kentucky, somewhere near Louisville. I am goin’ on 88 years right now. (1937). I was brought to Missouri when I was six months old, along with my mama, who was a slave owned by a man named Shaw, who had allotted her to a man named Jimmie Graves, who came to Missouri to live with his daughter Emily Graves Crowdes. I always lived with Emily Crowdes."
The matter of allotment was confusing to the interviewer and Aunt Sally endeavored to explain.
"Yes’m. Allotted? Yes’m. I’m goin’ to explain that, " she replied. "You see there was slave traders in those days, jes’ like you got horse and mule an’ auto traders now. They bought and sold slaves and hired ‘em out. Yes’m, rented ‘em out. Allotted means somethin’ like hired out. But the slave never got no wages. That all went to the master. The man they was allotted to paid the master."
"I was never sold. My mama was sold only once, but she was hired out many times. Yes’m when a slave was allotted, somebody made a down payment and gave a mortgage for the rest. A chattel mortgage… ."
"Allotments made a lot of grief for the slaves," Aunt Sally asserted. "We left my papa in Kentucky, ‘cause he was allotted to another man. My papa never knew where my mama went, an’ my mama never knew where papa went." Aunt Sally paused a moment, then went on bitterly. "They never wanted mama to know, ‘cause they knowed she would never marry so long she knew where he was. Our master wanted her to marry again and raise more children to be slaves. They never wanted mama to know where papa was, an’ she never did," sighed Aunt Sally.
More than 2,300 first-person accounts of slavery and 500 black-and-white photographs of former slaves. These narratives were collected in the 1930s as part of the Federal Writers’ Project of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and assembled and microfilmed in 1941 as the seventeen-volume Slave Narratives: A Folk History of Slavery in the United States from Interviews with Former Slaves. This online collection is a joint presentation of the Manuscript and Prints and Photographs Divisions of the Library of Congress and includes more than 200 photographs from the Prints and Photographs Division that are now made available to the public for the first time. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/snhtml/snhome.html

Sarah Graves- Eyewitness To History- Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936-1938

NOTES

Childhood and girlhood memories are vivid to Sarah Frances Shaw Graves, an 87 year old woman whose indomitable courage and steadfast purpose overcame obstacles and made possible the ownership of the 120 acre farm near Skidmore, on R. F. D. #4, where she lives with her bachelor son, Arza Alexander Graves…

Sarah Frances Shaw Graves, Age 87

"I was born March 23, 1850 in Kentucky, somewhere near Louisville. I am goin’ on 88 years right now. (1937). I was brought to Missouri when I was six months old, along with my mama, who was a slave owned by a man named Shaw, who had allotted her to a man named Jimmie Graves, who came to Missouri to live with his daughter Emily Graves Crowdes. I always lived with Emily Crowdes."

The matter of allotment was confusing to the interviewer and Aunt Sally endeavored to explain.

"Yes’m. Allotted? Yes’m. I’m goin’ to explain that, " she replied. "You see there was slave traders in those days, jes’ like you got horse and mule an’ auto traders now. They bought and sold slaves and hired ‘em out. Yes’m, rented ‘em out. Allotted means somethin’ like hired out. But the slave never got no wages. That all went to the master. The man they was allotted to paid the master."

"I was never sold. My mama was sold only once, but she was hired out many times. Yes’m when a slave was allotted, somebody made a down payment and gave a mortgage for the rest. A chattel mortgage… ."

"Allotments made a lot of grief for the slaves," Aunt Sally asserted. "We left my papa in Kentucky, ‘cause he was allotted to another man. My papa never knew where my mama went, an’ my mama never knew where papa went." Aunt Sally paused a moment, then went on bitterly. "They never wanted mama to know, ‘cause they knowed she would never marry so long she knew where he was. Our master wanted her to marry again and raise more children to be slaves. They never wanted mama to know where papa was, an’ she never did," sighed Aunt Sally.

More than 2,300 first-person accounts of slavery and 500 black-and-white photographs of former slaves. These narratives were collected in the 1930s as part of the Federal Writers’ Project of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and assembled and microfilmed in 1941 as the seventeen-volume Slave Narratives: A Folk History of Slavery in the United States from Interviews with Former Slaves. This online collection is a joint presentation of the Manuscript and Prints and Photographs Divisions of the Library of Congress and includes more than 200 photographs from the Prints and Photographs Division that are now made available to the public for the first time. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/snhtml/snhome.html

Henry O. Nightingale- Eyewitness To History-
The Assassination Of Abraham Lincoln
His 1865 diary describes one of the most infamous events in American history. On April 14, Nightingale attended a performance at Ford’s Theatre. There, he witnessed the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln by John Wilkes Booth. Nightingale recounted the horrific scene, writing:
Transcription
A beautiful April day. Remained all day in the Hospital. In the evening, attended Ford’s Theatre and in the last act a most astounding crime was committed the President; Mr. Lincoln, shot through the head, the assassin then leaped out of the box on the stage and drew a large dagger and exclaimed “I have done it. Virginia is avenged. Sic semper tyrannis” and made his escape. the President was conveyed to a neighboring house in dying condition. a fearful night is this. Other [monstrous] crimes the Secretary of State his sons and [illegible] servants staffed found [illegible] God pit the rebellion now for men, will how no mercy death to every Confederate my Rebel sympathies, intense excitement all over the City. is under Martial Law. 

Henry O. Nightingale (1844-1919) was an abolitionist from Rochester, New York who at 18 years of age enlisted in the Northern army at the start of the Civil War. Nightingale fought in numerous battles, including the Battle of Gettysburg.
    Read Nightingale’s account of Lincoln’s assassination
Zoom Info
Henry O. Nightingale- Eyewitness To History-
The Assassination Of Abraham Lincoln
His 1865 diary describes one of the most infamous events in American history. On April 14, Nightingale attended a performance at Ford’s Theatre. There, he witnessed the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln by John Wilkes Booth. Nightingale recounted the horrific scene, writing:
Transcription
A beautiful April day. Remained all day in the Hospital. In the evening, attended Ford’s Theatre and in the last act a most astounding crime was committed the President; Mr. Lincoln, shot through the head, the assassin then leaped out of the box on the stage and drew a large dagger and exclaimed “I have done it. Virginia is avenged. Sic semper tyrannis” and made his escape. the President was conveyed to a neighboring house in dying condition. a fearful night is this. Other [monstrous] crimes the Secretary of State his sons and [illegible] servants staffed found [illegible] God pit the rebellion now for men, will how no mercy death to every Confederate my Rebel sympathies, intense excitement all over the City. is under Martial Law. 

Henry O. Nightingale (1844-1919) was an abolitionist from Rochester, New York who at 18 years of age enlisted in the Northern army at the start of the Civil War. Nightingale fought in numerous battles, including the Battle of Gettysburg.
    Read Nightingale’s account of Lincoln’s assassination
Zoom Info

Henry O. Nightingale- Eyewitness To History-

The Assassination Of Abraham Lincoln

His 1865 diary describes one of the most infamous events in American history. On April 14, Nightingale attended a performance at Ford’s Theatre. There, he witnessed the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln by John Wilkes Booth. Nightingale recounted the horrific scene, writing:

Transcription

A beautiful April day. Remained all day in the Hospital. In the evening, attended Ford’s Theatre and in the last act a most astounding crime was committed the President; Mr. Lincoln, shot through the head, the assassin then leaped out of the box on the stage and drew a large dagger and exclaimed “I have done it. Virginia is avenged. Sic semper tyrannis” and made his escape. the President was conveyed to a neighboring house in dying condition. a fearful night is this. Other [monstrous] crimes the Secretary of State his sons and [illegible] servants staffed found [illegible] God pit the rebellion now for men, will how no mercy death to every Confederate my Rebel sympathies, intense excitement all over the City. is under Martial Law.
Henry O. Nightingale (1844-1919) was an abolitionist from Rochester, New York who at 18 years of age enlisted in the Northern army at the start of the Civil War. Nightingale fought in numerous battles, including the Battle of Gettysburg.

    Read Nightingale’s account of Lincoln’s assassination

How Quickly Are We Losing Key Civil War Battlefield Sites?

At current rates of development and due to rapidly increasing land prices, our nation loses approximately one acre of hallowed ground every hour. We calculate that the fate of the remaining unprotected ground will be determined within the next five to fifteen years, depending on its location.
Who owns that unprotected land?
In most cases, it is held by private landowners. Some families have owned battlefield properties since the War. Until it is officially preserved, that land can be sold to a developer or rezoned for development by government action literally at any moment. 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_American_Civil_War_battles
http://www.civilwar.org/aboutus/preservation-faqs.html
http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/10-facts-about-the-civil-war/
Zoom Info
How Quickly Are We Losing Key Civil War Battlefield Sites?

At current rates of development and due to rapidly increasing land prices, our nation loses approximately one acre of hallowed ground every hour. We calculate that the fate of the remaining unprotected ground will be determined within the next five to fifteen years, depending on its location.
Who owns that unprotected land?
In most cases, it is held by private landowners. Some families have owned battlefield properties since the War. Until it is officially preserved, that land can be sold to a developer or rezoned for development by government action literally at any moment. 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_American_Civil_War_battles
http://www.civilwar.org/aboutus/preservation-faqs.html
http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/10-facts-about-the-civil-war/
Zoom Info

How Quickly Are We Losing Key Civil War Battlefield Sites?

At current rates of development and due to rapidly increasing land prices, our nation loses approximately one acre of hallowed ground every hour. We calculate that the fate of the remaining unprotected ground will be determined within the next five to fifteen years, depending on its location.

Who owns that unprotected land?

In most cases, it is held by private landowners. Some families have owned battlefield properties since the War. Until it is officially preserved, that land can be sold to a developer or rezoned for development by government action literally at any moment.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_American_Civil_War_battles

http://www.civilwar.org/aboutus/preservation-faqs.html

http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/10-facts-about-the-civil-war/

CIVIL WAR FACTS -

How much hallowed ground has already been lost?

According to a study done by the U.S. Congress, fully 20 percent of the hallowed ground of the Civil War has already been destroyed forever, covered by roads, housing developments and other inappropriate development. Battlefields such as Chantilly and Salem Church in Virginia are just two examples of battlegrounds all but destroyed.

http://www.civilwar.org/aboutus/preservation-faqs.html

 Many Civil War Battlefields Are Threatened By Development
Photo: Buddy Secor’s photo of the Pelham cannon in Spotsylvania won second place in the “preservation threats’ category
The United States government has identified 384 battles that had a significant impact on the larger war.  Many of these battlefields have been developed—turned into shopping malls, pizza parlors, housing developments, etc.—and many more are threatened by development.  Since the end of the Civil War, veterans and other citizens have struggled to preserve the fields on which Americans fought and died.  The Civil War Trust and its partners have preserved more than 36,000 acres of battlefield land.
"Nothing creates an emotional connection between present and past like walking in the footsteps of our Civil War soldiers," -Civil War author Jeff Shaara
~What if one day we can no longer walk there?
PRESERVATION VIRGINIA ANNOUNCES 2014 MOST ENDANGERED SITES LIST
Virginia’s Civil War Battlefields
(Bristoe Station Battlefield and Williamsburg Battlefield)
Threat:  Both battlefield sites are threatened by encroaching development, both immediate and longer term.
Southside Roller Mill, Chase City
Threat:  The Southside Roller Mill’s private owner struggles to maintain and shield the structure from the ravages of time and weather, but, as in many rural towns, funds are generally insufficient for feasibility planning and rehabilitating the structure for a new community use.  
Virginia’s “Sidestepped” Towns: Columbia and Pamplin City
Threat:  The towns of Columbia and Pamplin City are similar in that their historic periods of greatest prosperity are behind them, as a result of evolving patterns of circulation and modes of transportation, but their immediate threats and opportunities for renewed success are divergent.
James River Viewshed
Threat:  A proposed Dominion Virginia Power transmission line project would cross 4.1 miles of the river atop as many as 17 towers ranging in height from 160 feet to 295 feet, compromising the scenic integrity of the historic cultural areas that comprise the James River. The towers and power lines would intrude on the public vantage points from the Historic Triangle, which includes the Colonial Parkway, Jamestown Island’s Black Point and Carter’s Grove Plantation, as well as water routes on the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Trail. The National Trust for Historic Preservation named the resource to its 2013 list of America’s 11 Most Endangered Historic Places.
Hook-Powell-Moorman Farm
Threat:  Much like the Booker T. Washington National Monument, located three miles away and listed as a Most Endangered Site in 2009, the Hook-Powell-Moorman farmstead is threatened by encroaching development along Route 122 and nearby Smith Mountain Lake.
Historic Schools In Virginia
Threat:  As budgets tighten and populations increase, increasingly there are frequent calls for the closure or demolition of historic school buildings across the state.
The Old Concrete Road
Threat:  While the mountain is under conservation easement, and is well-loved by both Roanoke citizens and its caretakers, the City of Roanoke’s Department of Parks and Recreation, it is recognized that the “rubble” retaining walls lining the road are suffering from deterioration and damage in multiple spots, due to root intrusion and normal freeze/thaw cycles and general wear and tear.
Pocahontas Island Historic District
Threat:  Residents and stewards of Pocahontas Island’s history have been unable to generate the necessary funds to fully interpret the site’s Underground Railroad narrative. The privately-owned house on Witten Street and the City of Petersburg-owned Jarratt House both suffer from years of neglect as a result of a lack of funding and need stabilization and repair. While some repairs have been made to the Jarratt House in the past decade, a portion of the rear wall collapsed several years ago.
Phlegar Building (Old Clerk’s Office)
Threat:  Deferred maintenance has taken its toll on the exterior of the building and the lack of a preservation plan makes its future uncertain.
Shockoe Bottom
Threat:  The public-private Revitalize RVA Plan contemplates intensive construction and redevelopment within the Shockoe Bottom flood plain, including a stadium, hotel, grocery store, retail space, office buildings, apartment buildings, parking garages, highway off-ramp modifications, and storm water flood-control infrastructure. These activities are likely to adversely impact historic and archaeological resources that are listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places (including those located within the Shockoe Valley & Tobacco Row Historic District and those identified in a multiple-property listing entitled The Slave Trade as a Commercial Enterprise in Richmond, Virginia).
Waterloo Bridge
Threat:  Waterloo Bridge was used for vehicular traffic until January 2014 when it was closed for reasons of safety; the wear and tear of sustained use and structural deficiencies in its iron material were no longer able to sustain a practical weight limit.   
READ THE STORIES OF THESE PRESERVATION SITES  HERE: http://preservationvirginia.org/press-room/release/2014-most-endangered-historic-sites-list-press-release
http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/10-facts-about-the-civil-war/
http://www.freelancestar.com/2013-11-04/articles/21780/battlefield-image-is-tops-stafford-amateur-wins-national-contest/

Many Civil War Battlefields Are Threatened By Development

Photo: Buddy Secor’s photo of the Pelham cannon in Spotsylvania won second place in the “preservation threats’ category

The United States government has identified 384 battles that had a significant impact on the larger war.  Many of these battlefields have been developed—turned into shopping malls, pizza parlors, housing developments, etc.—and many more are threatened by development.  Since the end of the Civil War, veterans and other citizens have struggled to preserve the fields on which Americans fought and died.  The Civil War Trust and its partners have preserved more than 36,000 acres of battlefield land.

"Nothing creates an emotional connection between present and past like walking in the footsteps of our Civil War soldiers," -Civil War author Jeff Shaara

~What if one day we can no longer walk there?

PRESERVATION VIRGINIA ANNOUNCES 2014 MOST ENDANGERED SITES LIST

Virginias Civil War Battlefields

(Bristoe Station Battlefield and Williamsburg Battlefield)

Threat Both battlefield sites are threatened by encroaching development, both immediate and longer term.

Southside Roller Mill, Chase City

Threat:  The Southside Roller Mill’s private owner struggles to maintain and shield the structure from the ravages of time and weather, but, as in many rural towns, funds are generally insufficient for feasibility planning and rehabilitating the structure for a new community use.  

Virginias SidesteppedTowns: Columbia and Pamplin City

Threat:  The towns of Columbia and Pamplin City are similar in that their historic periods of greatest prosperity are behind them, as a result of evolving patterns of circulation and modes of transportation, but their immediate threats and opportunities for renewed success are divergent.

James River Viewshed

Threat A proposed Dominion Virginia Power transmission line project would cross 4.1 miles of the river atop as many as 17 towers ranging in height from 160 feet to 295 feet, compromising the scenic integrity of the historic cultural areas that comprise the James River. The towers and power lines would intrude on the public vantage points from the Historic Triangle, which includes the Colonial Parkway, Jamestown Island’s Black Point and Carter’s Grove Plantation, as well as water routes on the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Trail. The National Trust for Historic Preservation named the resource to its 2013 list of America’s 11 Most Endangered Historic Places.

Hook-Powell-Moorman Farm

Threat:  Much like the Booker T. Washington National Monument, located three miles away and listed as a Most Endangered Site in 2009, the Hook-Powell-Moorman farmstead is threatened by encroaching development along Route 122 and nearby Smith Mountain Lake.

Historic Schools In Virginia

Threat:  As budgets tighten and populations increase, increasingly there are frequent calls for the closure or demolition of historic school buildings across the state.

The Old Concrete Road

Threat:  While the mountain is under conservation easement, and is well-loved by both Roanoke citizens and its caretakers, the City of Roanoke’s Department of Parks and Recreation, it is recognized that the “rubble” retaining walls lining the road are suffering from deterioration and damage in multiple spots, due to root intrusion and normal freeze/thaw cycles and general wear and tear.

Pocahontas Island Historic District

Threat Residents and stewards of Pocahontas Island’s history have been unable to generate the necessary funds to fully interpret the site’s Underground Railroad narrative. The privately-owned house on Witten Street and the City of Petersburg-owned Jarratt House both suffer from years of neglect as a result of a lack of funding and need stabilization and repair. While some repairs have been made to the Jarratt House in the past decade, a portion of the rear wall collapsed several years ago.

Phlegar Building (Old Clerks Office)

Threat:  Deferred maintenance has taken its toll on the exterior of the building and the lack of a preservation plan makes its future uncertain.

Shockoe Bottom

Threat The public-private Revitalize RVA Plan contemplates intensive construction and redevelopment within the Shockoe Bottom flood plain, including a stadium, hotel, grocery store, retail space, office buildings, apartment buildings, parking garages, highway off-ramp modifications, and storm water flood-control infrastructure. These activities are likely to adversely impact historic and archaeological resources that are listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places (including those located within the Shockoe Valley & Tobacco Row Historic District and those identified in a multiple-property listing entitled The Slave Trade as a Commercial Enterprise in Richmond, Virginia).

Waterloo Bridge

Threat:  Waterloo Bridge was used for vehicular traffic until January 2014 when it was closed for reasons of safety; the wear and tear of sustained use and structural deficiencies in its iron material were no longer able to sustain a practical weight limit.   

READ THE STORIES OF THESE PRESERVATION SITES  HERE: http://preservationvirginia.org/press-room/release/2014-most-endangered-historic-sites-list-press-release

http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/10-facts-about-the-civil-war/

http://www.freelancestar.com/2013-11-04/articles/21780/battlefield-image-is-tops-stafford-amateur-wins-national-contest/

The Yankee Carpet Bagger
A magazine cartoon from 1872 expresses white Southern hostility to “carpetbagging” politicians from the North.   Bettmann/Corbis 
The term carpetbagger was a pejorative term referring to the carpet bags (a fashionable form of luggage at the time) which many of these newcomers carried. The term came to be associated with opportunism and exploitation by outsiders. The term is still used today to refer to an outsider perceived as using manipulation or fraud to obtain an objective.
Together with Republicans, carpetbaggers were said to have politically manipulated and controlled former Confederate states for varying periods for their own financial and power gains. In sum, carpetbaggers were seen as insidious Northern outsiders with questionable objectives meddling in local politics, buying up plantations at fire-sale prices and taking advantage of Southerners.
The term carpetbaggers was also used to describe the Republican political appointees who came South, arriving with their travel carpet bags. Southerners considered them ready to loot and plunder the defeated South

The Yankee Carpet Bagger

A magazine cartoon from 1872 expresses white Southern hostility to “carpetbagging” politicians from the North.
Bettmann/Corbis

The term carpetbagger was a pejorative term referring to the carpet bags (a fashionable form of luggage at the time) which many of these newcomers carried. The term came to be associated with opportunism and exploitation by outsiders. The term is still used today to refer to an outsider perceived as using manipulation or fraud to obtain an objective.

Together with Republicans, carpetbaggers were said to have politically manipulated and controlled former Confederate states for varying periods for their own financial and power gains. In sum, carpetbaggers were seen as insidious Northern outsiders with questionable objectives meddling in local politics, buying up plantations at fire-sale prices and taking advantage of Southerners.

The term carpetbaggers was also used to describe the Republican political appointees who came South, arriving with their travel carpet bags. Southerners considered them ready to loot and plunder the defeated South

The Very Confidently Posed George Henry Gordon, circa 1846
 -US Military Academy, West Point, NY, Later Brigadier General/ Brevet Major General In The Civil War, Lawyer And Author
Massachusetts graduate of West Point who fought in the Mexican-American War and Civil War, according to his colleagues, the leader of the best trained and disciplined units of the Union army. Gordon raised the first volunteer Massachusetts regiment after the outbreak of Civil War and while many of Gordon’s West Point classmates, including George McClellan, received great acclaim, his own history has been hidden until now.
After the war, Gordon practiced law in Boston. He was one of the founders of the Military Historical Society of Massachusetts. He published the following books:
History of the Second Massachusetts Regiment (1876)
History of the Campaign of the Army of Virginia under Gen. John Pope from Cedar Mountain to Alexandria (1880)
A War Diary of the Events of the War of the Great Rebellion, 1863-65 (1882)
Brook Farm to Cedar Mountain (1883)
http://framingham.patch.com/groups/schools/p/ev—a-call-to-dutyframinghams-general-george-henry-go0568858578
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Henry_Gordon#Civil_War

The Very Confidently Posed George Henry Gordon, circa 1846

-US Military Academy, West Point, NY, Later Brigadier General/ Brevet Major General In The Civil War, Lawyer And Author

Massachusetts graduate of West Point who fought in the Mexican-American War and Civil War, according to his colleagues, the leader of the best trained and disciplined units of the Union army. Gordon raised the first volunteer Massachusetts regiment after the outbreak of Civil War and while many of Gordon’s West Point classmates, including George McClellan, received great acclaim, his own history has been hidden until now.

After the war, Gordon practiced law in Boston. He was one of the founders of the Military Historical Society of Massachusetts. He published the following books:

  • History of the Second Massachusetts Regiment (1876)
  • History of the Campaign of the Army of Virginia under Gen. John Pope from Cedar Mountain to Alexandria (1880)
  • A War Diary of the Events of the War of the Great Rebellion, 1863-65 (1882)
  • Brook Farm to Cedar Mountain (1883)

http://framingham.patch.com/groups/schools/p/ev—a-call-to-dutyframinghams-general-george-henry-go0568858578

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Henry_Gordon#Civil_War

OLD CROW HAND MADE SOUR MASH AND ULYSSES S. GRANT
He had a distinctly Southern taste when it came to liquor
It has been said that it was the drink of choice for American general and later 18th President of the United States, Ulysses S. Grant
An apocryphal story about Grant’s drinking has the general’s critics going to President Abraham Lincoln, charging the military man with being a drunk. Lincoln is supposed to have replied, “By the way, gentlemen, can either of you tell me where General Grant procures his whiskey ? Because, if I can find out, I will send every general in the field a barrel of it!-
 {no source} but a great quote… reprinted in other newspapers such as the Daily Constitutional Union of Washington D.C.  and the Cleveland Plain Dealer of Cleveland, Ohio.
This popular story has been disseminated in numerous books and periodicals from 1863 to the present day. But testimony regarding its originality and veracity is complex and contradictory. Some individuals have claimed that they heard the joke directly from Lincoln, and other individuals have stated that Lincoln denied telling the joke. In addition, critics have questioned the novelty of the jest.
On October 30, 1863 a compact version of the story was printed in the New York Times: 

When some one charged Gen. Grant, in the President’s hearing, with drinking too much liquor, Mr. Lincoln, recalling Gen. Grant’s successes, said that if he could find out what brand of whisky Grant drank, he would send a barrel of it to all the other commanders.


The label’s founder, Kentuckian via Scotland Dr. James Crow is credited with perfecting the sour mash method of whiskey making in the mid 19th century, and thus became one of the first makers of true Kentucky bourbon.
http://www.esquire.com/the-side/food-and-drink/historic-men-drinks-2#slide-2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Crow
http://quoteinvestigator.com/2013/02/18/barrel-of-whiskey/
Zoom Info
OLD CROW HAND MADE SOUR MASH AND ULYSSES S. GRANT
He had a distinctly Southern taste when it came to liquor
It has been said that it was the drink of choice for American general and later 18th President of the United States, Ulysses S. Grant
An apocryphal story about Grant’s drinking has the general’s critics going to President Abraham Lincoln, charging the military man with being a drunk. Lincoln is supposed to have replied, “By the way, gentlemen, can either of you tell me where General Grant procures his whiskey ? Because, if I can find out, I will send every general in the field a barrel of it!-
 {no source} but a great quote… reprinted in other newspapers such as the Daily Constitutional Union of Washington D.C.  and the Cleveland Plain Dealer of Cleveland, Ohio.
This popular story has been disseminated in numerous books and periodicals from 1863 to the present day. But testimony regarding its originality and veracity is complex and contradictory. Some individuals have claimed that they heard the joke directly from Lincoln, and other individuals have stated that Lincoln denied telling the joke. In addition, critics have questioned the novelty of the jest.
On October 30, 1863 a compact version of the story was printed in the New York Times: 

When some one charged Gen. Grant, in the President’s hearing, with drinking too much liquor, Mr. Lincoln, recalling Gen. Grant’s successes, said that if he could find out what brand of whisky Grant drank, he would send a barrel of it to all the other commanders.


The label’s founder, Kentuckian via Scotland Dr. James Crow is credited with perfecting the sour mash method of whiskey making in the mid 19th century, and thus became one of the first makers of true Kentucky bourbon.
http://www.esquire.com/the-side/food-and-drink/historic-men-drinks-2#slide-2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Crow
http://quoteinvestigator.com/2013/02/18/barrel-of-whiskey/
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OLD CROW HAND MADE SOUR MASH AND ULYSSES S. GRANT

He had a distinctly Southern taste when it came to liquor

It has been said that it was the drink of choice for American general and later 18th President of the United States, Ulysses S. Grant

An apocryphal story about Grant’s drinking has the general’s critics going to President Abraham Lincoln, charging the military man with being a drunk. Lincoln is supposed to have replied, “By the way, gentlemen, can either of you tell me where General Grant procures his whiskey ? Because, if I can find out, I will send every general in the field a barrel of it!-

{no source} but a great quote… reprinted in other newspapers such as the Daily Constitutional Union of Washington D.C.  and the Cleveland Plain Dealer of Cleveland, Ohio.

This popular story has been disseminated in numerous books and periodicals from 1863 to the present day. But testimony regarding its originality and veracity is complex and contradictory. Some individuals have claimed that they heard the joke directly from Lincoln, and other individuals have stated that Lincoln denied telling the joke. In addition, critics have questioned the novelty of the jest.

On October 30, 1863 a compact version of the story was printed in the New York Times: 

When some one charged Gen. Grant, in the President’s hearing, with drinking too much liquor, Mr. Lincoln, recalling Gen. Grant’s successes, said that if he could find out what brand of whisky Grant drank, he would send a barrel of it to all the other commanders.

The label’s founder, Kentuckian via Scotland Dr. James Crow is credited with perfecting the sour mash method of whiskey making in the mid 19th century, and thus became one of the first makers of true Kentucky bourbon.

http://www.esquire.com/the-side/food-and-drink/historic-men-drinks-2#slide-2

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Crow

http://quoteinvestigator.com/2013/02/18/barrel-of-whiskey/