VOICES FROM THE CIVIL WAR

M. Brock, a Union soldier stationed in Leesburg, watched in 1863 as three of his fellow soldiers, seated on the edges of coffins, were shot.

"They all fell backward into their coffins and remained as they fell until the whole Column passed them," he wrote. "Melancholy sight to Witness — shot for Deserting."

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/11/05/AR2010110502726.html

Ulysses S. Grant Carte de Visite
Lincoln’s Assassination-Grant stood alone and wept openly

On April 14, five days after Grant’s victory at Appomattox, Lincoln was fatally shot by John Wilkes Booth and died the next morning. The assassination was part of a conspiracy that targeted a number of government leaders.Grant attended a cabinet meeting that day, and Lincoln had invited Grant and his wife to the theater, but they declined as they had plans to travel to Philadelphia. Many, including Grant himself, thought that Grant had been a target in the plot. Secretary of War Stanton, through Charles Dana, notified Grant of the President’s death and summoned him to Washington.
The following day, Grant hastily ordered the arrest of paroled Confederate officers. Major General Edward Ord, however, was able to narrow the existing threats in Washington by army intelligence and persuaded Grant to reverse his arrest orders. Attending Lincoln’s funeral on April 19, Grant stood alone and wept openly. He said of Lincoln, “He was incontestably the greatest man I have ever know.”

Photo: Grant stands in uniform looking slightly to his right with his left hand resting on the back of a chair. Wenderoth & Taylor backstamp on the verso.
http://historical.ha.com/itm/photography/ulysses-s-grant-carte-de-visite/p/6131-13416.s#1133411334380
http://americanhistory.about.com/od/ulyssessgrant/p/pgrant.htm
McFeely, William S. (1981). Grant: A Biography. Norton. ISBN 0-393-01372-3.

Ulysses S. Grant Carte de Visite

Lincoln’s Assassination-Grant stood alone and wept openly

On April 14, five days after Grant’s victory at Appomattox, Lincoln was fatally shot by John Wilkes Booth and died the next morning. The assassination was part of a conspiracy that targeted a number of government leaders.Grant attended a cabinet meeting that day, and Lincoln had invited Grant and his wife to the theater, but they declined as they had plans to travel to Philadelphia. Many, including Grant himself, thought that Grant had been a target in the plot. Secretary of War Stanton, through Charles Dana, notified Grant of the President’s death and summoned him to Washington.

The following day, Grant hastily ordered the arrest of paroled Confederate officers. Major General Edward Ord, however, was able to narrow the existing threats in Washington by army intelligence and persuaded Grant to reverse his arrest orders. Attending Lincoln’s funeral on April 19, Grant stood alone and wept openly. He said of Lincoln, “He was incontestably the greatest man I have ever know.”

Photo: Grant stands in uniform looking slightly to his right with his left hand resting on the back of a chair. Wenderoth & Taylor backstamp on the verso.

http://historical.ha.com/itm/photography/ulysses-s-grant-carte-de-visite/p/6131-13416.s#1133411334380

http://americanhistory.about.com/od/ulyssessgrant/p/pgrant.htm

Civil War- “Powder Boy” James V. Johnston 1864
Description: This uniform was presented to James V. “Jimmie” Johnston by the crew of the U.S. gunboat Forest Rose, for gallantry in action during the Civil War. He had accompanied his mother to visit his father, Captain John V. Johnston, aboard the gunboat in peaceful waters on the Mississippi. As the vessel approached Waterproof, Louisiana, in February 1864 it came under attack by a Confederate force. 
When the gunboat’s regular powder monkey, who carried powder to the gunners, was killed early in the battle, young Jimmie took his place until the Confederates were repelled. The crew presented this uniform to the six-and-a-half-year-old boy they called “Admiral Johnston” for his bravery. Johnston proudly wore the outfit—with a stag-horn knife tucked into his waist—for a photograph.
Permalink:http://collections.mohistory.org/exhibit/EXH:CWMO-112

Civil War- “Powder Boy” James V. Johnston 1864

Description: This uniform was presented to James V. “Jimmie” Johnston by the crew of the U.S. gunboat Forest Rose, for gallantry in action during the Civil War. He had accompanied his mother to visit his father, Captain John V. Johnston, aboard the gunboat in peaceful waters on the Mississippi. As the vessel approached Waterproof, Louisiana, in February 1864 it came under attack by a Confederate force.

When the gunboat’s regular powder monkey, who carried powder to the gunners, was killed early in the battle, young Jimmie took his place until the Confederates were repelled. The crew presented this uniform to the six-and-a-half-year-old boy they called “Admiral Johnston” for his bravery. Johnston proudly wore the outfit—with a stag-horn knife tucked into his waist—for a photograph.

Permalink:
http://collections.mohistory.org/exhibit/EXH:CWMO-112

"Officers of the Third Regiment Missouri Volunteers taken at Corinth, Mississippi, 28 October 1863."
Identifier: 34560

Title: "Officers of the Third Regiment Missouri Volunteers taken at Corinth, Mississippi, 28 October 1863."

Description: Group photograph of 14 union officers in uniform with drum in foreground and flag in background. “Officers of the 3d Regiment Missouri Volunteers taken at Corinth Miss Oct 20th 1863” (written below image).

Item: Photograph

Rights: Public Domain

Dates: 1863

Type(s): Photo & Prints Collection
Subjects: U.S. Civil War
Permalink:http://collections.mohistory.org/resource/142863

"Officers of the Third Regiment Missouri Volunteers taken at Corinth, Mississippi, 28 October 1863."

Identifier: 34560

Title: "Officers of the Third Regiment Missouri Volunteers taken at Corinth, Mississippi, 28 October 1863."

Description: Group photograph of 14 union officers in uniform with drum in foreground and flag in background. “Officers of the 3d Regiment Missouri Volunteers taken at Corinth Miss Oct 20th 1863” (written below image).

Item: Photograph

Rights: Public Domain

Dates: 1863

Type(s): Photo & Prints Collection

Subjects: U.S. Civil War

Permalink:
http://collections.mohistory.org/resource/142863

John Thomson Ford 1829 – 1894,  Ford’s Theatre In Lincoln’s time Washington, DC
Notable For Operating Fords Theatre At The Time Of The Abraham Lincoln Assassination 
John Ford was rounded up after the assassination and, although he knew nothing of Booth’s conspiracy, was imprisoned for thirty-nine days as a suspect. His theatre was seized by Secretary of War Stanton, gutted, and turned into offices, as well. 
It would not be restored until almost a hundred years later.
Ford was the manager of this highly successful theatre at the time of the assassination of Lincoln. He was a good friend of Lincoln’s assassin John Wilkes Booth, a famous actor. Ford drew further suspicion upon himself by being in Richmond, Virginia, at the time of the assassination on 14 April 1865. Up until April 2, 1865, Richmond had been the capital of the just defeated Confederate States of America and a center of anti-Lincoln conspiracies.
An order was issued for Ford’s arrest and, on April 18, Ford was arrested at his Baltimore home which he had reached in the interim. His brothers James and Harry Clay Ford were thrown into prison along with him. John Ford complained of the effect his incarceration would have on his business and family, and offered to help with the investigation, but Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton made no reply to his two letters. After thirty-nine days, the brothers were finally fully exonerated and set free since there was no evidence of their complicity in the crime.
 The theater was seized by the government and Ford was paid $100,000 for it by  Congress. Due to the treatment accorded to him following the assassination, Ford remained bitter toward the United States Government for decades.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_T._Ford
http://www.shapell.org/btl.aspx?john-wilkes-booth-spy-turned-assassin
Zoom Info
John Thomson Ford 1829 – 1894,  Ford’s Theatre In Lincoln’s time Washington, DC
Notable For Operating Fords Theatre At The Time Of The Abraham Lincoln Assassination 
John Ford was rounded up after the assassination and, although he knew nothing of Booth’s conspiracy, was imprisoned for thirty-nine days as a suspect. His theatre was seized by Secretary of War Stanton, gutted, and turned into offices, as well. 
It would not be restored until almost a hundred years later.
Ford was the manager of this highly successful theatre at the time of the assassination of Lincoln. He was a good friend of Lincoln’s assassin John Wilkes Booth, a famous actor. Ford drew further suspicion upon himself by being in Richmond, Virginia, at the time of the assassination on 14 April 1865. Up until April 2, 1865, Richmond had been the capital of the just defeated Confederate States of America and a center of anti-Lincoln conspiracies.
An order was issued for Ford’s arrest and, on April 18, Ford was arrested at his Baltimore home which he had reached in the interim. His brothers James and Harry Clay Ford were thrown into prison along with him. John Ford complained of the effect his incarceration would have on his business and family, and offered to help with the investigation, but Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton made no reply to his two letters. After thirty-nine days, the brothers were finally fully exonerated and set free since there was no evidence of their complicity in the crime.
 The theater was seized by the government and Ford was paid $100,000 for it by  Congress. Due to the treatment accorded to him following the assassination, Ford remained bitter toward the United States Government for decades.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_T._Ford
http://www.shapell.org/btl.aspx?john-wilkes-booth-spy-turned-assassin
Zoom Info

John Thomson Ford 1829 – 1894,  Ford’s Theatre In Lincoln’s time Washington, DC

Notable For Operating Fords Theatre At The Time Of The Abraham Lincoln Assassination

John Ford was rounded up after the assassination and, although he knew nothing of Booth’s conspiracy, was imprisoned for thirty-nine days as a suspect. His theatre was seized by Secretary of War Stanton, gutted, and turned into offices, as well.

It would not be restored until almost a hundred years later.

Ford was the manager of this highly successful theatre at the time of the assassination of Lincoln. He was a good friend of Lincoln’s assassin John Wilkes Booth, a famous actor. Ford drew further suspicion upon himself by being in Richmond, Virginia, at the time of the assassination on 14 April 1865. Up until April 2, 1865, Richmond had been the capital of the just defeated Confederate States of America and a center of anti-Lincoln conspiracies.

An order was issued for Ford’s arrest and, on April 18, Ford was arrested at his Baltimore home which he had reached in the interim. His brothers James and Harry Clay Ford were thrown into prison along with him. John Ford complained of the effect his incarceration would have on his business and family, and offered to help with the investigation, but Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton made no reply to his two letters. After thirty-nine days, the brothers were finally fully exonerated and set free since there was no evidence of their complicity in the crime.

The theater was seized by the government and Ford was paid $100,000 for it by  Congress. Due to the treatment accorded to him following the assassination, Ford remained bitter toward the United States Government for decades.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_T._Ford

http://www.shapell.org/btl.aspx?john-wilkes-booth-spy-turned-assassin

CIVIL WAR LOVE LETTER-
Letter from unknown soldier writing from Nashville, Tennessee, to his friend Ettie . He writes that he wants to get married when he returns home from army life and asks her to tell any good-looking, amiable young women she knows that he is available.

Nashville Tenn Jany 5th 64


Friend Ettie

I believe I am not indebted to you by way of letter, but for your kindness to me I will write you a few lines. It is quite cool Weather here now and some snow upon the ground but not enough to make sleighing. I wish I wish I were in Hillsdale today I think I would call around to friend Ettie and go out a Sleighing. I get lonesome sometimes and I not know what to do, if I ever get out of the Service alive I am agoing to settle down and get married.

What a novel Idea that is, perhaps you will not believe it but I am not joking. I am not quite an old Bach yet but I fear I will be before long.

If you know of some good looking amiable young Lady that wish to change her situation in life, just mention the fact to her, and tell her there is a Soldier in the Army that wishes to marry in less than two years after his time expires in the Army.

On New Year’s day about one o-clock I received a verry nice gift which I appreciated verry much. It was the only gift that I received, and on that account realize its worth. You have my heartfelt thanks for your kindness and remembrance of a Soldier. Enclosed you will find the likeness of your unknown Correspondent which you will please accept, with the kindest regards.


I am yours
verry truly

http://spec.lib.vt.edu/cwlove/friendettie.html

Duryee’s Zouaves, Fort Schuyler Adjuant Mess
"I doubt whether it had an equal, and certainly no superior among all the regiments of the Army of the Potomac." - General George Sykes, speaking of the 5th New York Infantry
Duryee’s Zouaves: The 5th New York Volunteer Infantry
The 5th New York Volunteer Infantry, “Duryée’s Zouaves,” was one of the most renowned fighting regiments of the American Civil War. Their colorful Zouave uniform, precise maneuvers, effectiveness in combat and steady bearing under fire, won them universal respect and recognition. Many observers considered the 5th New York to be the best-drilled volunteer unit in the Federal Army. In addition to a casualty list that totalled 211 dead out of 1,508 men borne on the rolls, nine of its soldiers attained the rank of general - five the full rank, and four by brevet.
Date: May 18, 1861
Medium: Albumen silver print from glass negative
Dimensions: 5 9/16 x 7 1/2
Classification: Photographs
Credit Line: Gilman Collection, Museum Purchase, 2005
http://www.zouave.org/
Photographer- Stacy (American, active 1860s) 
http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/285894

Duryee’s Zouaves, Fort Schuyler Adjuant Mess

"I doubt whether it had an equal, and certainly no superior among all the regiments of the Army of the Potomac."
- General George Sykes, speaking of the 5th New York Infantry

Duryee’s Zouaves: The 5th New York Volunteer Infantry

The 5th New York Volunteer Infantry, “Duryée’s Zouaves,” was one of the most renowned fighting regiments of the American Civil War. Their colorful Zouave uniform, precise maneuvers, effectiveness in combat and steady bearing under fire, won them universal respect and recognition. Many observers considered the 5th New York to be the best-drilled volunteer unit in the Federal Army. In addition to a casualty list that totalled 211 dead out of 1,508 men borne on the rolls, nine of its soldiers attained the rank of general - five the full rank, and four by brevet.

Date: May 18, 1861
Medium: Albumen silver print from glass negative
Dimensions: 5 9/16 x 7 1/2
Classification: Photographs
Credit Line: Gilman Collection, Museum Purchase, 2005
Photographer- Stacy (American, active 1860s)
General Robert E. Lee- Mathew Brady’s Last Wartime Photograph
 Mathew B. Brady  (American, near Lake George, New York 1823?–1896 New York) 
Date: 1865
Medium: Albumen silver print from glass negative
Dimensions: Image: 14 × 9.3 cm (5 1/2 × 3 11/16 in.)
Classification: Photographs
Credit Line: Gilman Collection, Museum Purchase, 2005

Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his army to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, on April 9, 1865. The Civil War was over. If not whole, the nation was at least reunited, and the slow recovery of Reconstruction could begin. As soon as he heard that Lee had left Appomattox and returned to Richmond, Mathew B. Brady headed there with his camera equipment. The Lees’ Franklin Street residence had survived the fires that had devastated many of the commercial sections of the city. Through the kindness of Mrs. Lee and a Confederate colonel, Brady received permission to photograph the general on April 16, 1865, just two days after President Lincoln’s assassination. Brady’s portrait of General Lee holding his hat, on his own back porch, is one of the most reflective and thoughtful wartime likenesses. The fifty-eight-year-old Confederate hero poses in the uniform he had worn at the surrender. It would be Brady’s last wartime photograph.

http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/286582

General Robert E. Lee- Mathew Brady’s Last Wartime Photograph

Mathew B. Brady
(American, near Lake George, New York 1823?–1896 New York)

Date: 1865
Medium: Albumen silver print from glass negative
Dimensions: Image: 14 × 9.3 cm (5 1/2 × 3 11/16 in.)
Classification: Photographs
Credit Line: Gilman Collection, Museum Purchase, 2005
Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his army to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, on April 9, 1865. The Civil War was over. If not whole, the nation was at least reunited, and the slow recovery of Reconstruction could begin. As soon as he heard that Lee had left Appomattox and returned to Richmond, Mathew B. Brady headed there with his camera equipment. The Lees’ Franklin Street residence had survived the fires that had devastated many of the commercial sections of the city. Through the kindness of Mrs. Lee and a Confederate colonel, Brady received permission to photograph the general on April 16, 1865, just two days after President Lincoln’s assassination. Brady’s portrait of General Lee holding his hat, on his own back porch, is one of the most reflective and thoughtful wartime likenesses. The fifty-eight-year-old Confederate hero poses in the uniform he had worn at the surrender. It would be Brady’s last wartime photograph.
[Four Officers]
Alexander Gardner  (American, Glasgow, Scotland 1821–1882 Washington, D.C.)
Despite decades of painstaking research by dedicated historians and Civil War buffs, a large number of the era’s photographs remain unidentified,
Including this portrait of four officers in the field. What is known is that the two men in the center wear forage caps featuring a round, sloping leather brim made popular by Gen. Irvin McDowell (leader of the Union troops during the first battle of Bull Run). The other men wear regulation U.S. officer’s slouch hats.

Date: ca. 1864
Medium: Albumen silver print from glass negative
Dimensions: Image: 17.8 x 22.8 cm (7 x 9 in.)
Classification: Photographs
Credit Line: Gilman Collection, Purchase, Sam Salz Foundation Gift, 2005
Accession Number: 2005.100.563
http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/286442

[Four Officers]

Alexander Gardner
(American, Glasgow, Scotland 1821–1882 Washington, D.C.)

Despite decades of painstaking research by dedicated historians and Civil War buffs, a large number of the era’s photographs remain unidentified,

Including this portrait of four officers in the field. What is known is that the two men in the center wear forage caps featuring a round, sloping leather brim made popular by Gen. Irvin McDowell (leader of the Union troops during the first battle of Bull Run). The other men wear regulation U.S. officer’s slouch hats.

Date: ca. 1864
Medium: Albumen silver print from glass negative
Dimensions: Image: 17.8 x 22.8 cm (7 x 9 in.)
Classification: Photographs
Credit Line: Gilman Collection, Purchase, Sam Salz Foundation Gift, 2005
Accession Number: 2005.100.563
[Unidentified soldier in Union assistant surgeon uniform with Ames medical sword]

Of the wounds recorded in the Civil War, 70%+ were to the extremities. And so, the amputation was the common operation of the Civil War surgeon. The field hospital was hell on earth. The surgeon would stand over the operating table for hours without a let up. Men screamed in delirium, calling for loved ones, while others laid pale and quiet with the effect of shock. Only the division’s best surgeons did the operating and they were called “operators”. Already, they were performing a crude system of triage. The ones wounded through the head, belly, or chest were left to one side because they would most likely die. This may sound somewhat cruel or heartless, but it allowed the doctors to save precious time and to operate on those that could be saved with prompt attention.

Digital ID:  (digital file from original item) ppmsca 33414 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.33414 
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-33414 (digital file from original item)
Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print
http://ehistory.osu.edu/uscw/features/medicine/cwsurgeon/amputations.cfm

[Unidentified soldier in Union assistant surgeon uniform with Ames medical sword]

Of the wounds recorded in the Civil War, 70%+ were to the extremities. And so, the amputation was the common operation of the Civil War surgeon.

The field hospital was hell on earth. The surgeon would stand over the operating table for hours without a let up. Men screamed in delirium, calling for loved ones, while others laid pale and quiet with the effect of shock. Only the division’s best surgeons did the operating and they were called “operators”. Already, they were performing a crude system of triage. The ones wounded through the head, belly, or chest were left to one side because they would most likely die. This may sound somewhat cruel or heartless, but it allowed the doctors to save precious time and to operate on those that could be saved with prompt attention.