African American Women’s Fashion And Style Pre and Post Civil War Years
Documentation for West Africans’ concern for well-groomed hair and ornamented heads is long-standing and survives among African Americans
Under enslavement, white owners demanded a certain form of dress for those in bondage: better dress for house servants and managers; poorer attire for field hands, children, and those too old to continue working. In spite of these constrictions, the nineteenth-century autobiographies and narratives, collected in the 1930s from formerly enslaved people, relate that African Americans put a great deal of thought into their dress. The narrators emphasized what clothing they had and did not have and described the clothing styles they desired and how they obtained them. “Correct” dress was especially important when “stepping out” for social occasions with community members
The slave narratives explain various ways of styling hair even under the most adverse conditions. Photographs of prominent women after the Civil War show them wearing the elegant, long, straight hairstyles in general fashion at the time. In the antebellum South, several states legally enforced the code that ordered black women to wear a cloth head covering in public and not the hats and feathers worn by white women. These codes thus marked certain females as a subservient class. During enslavement, women working in onerous conditions wore the head wrap to keep the hair cleaner and to absorb perspiration. Use of the head wrap at home continued after the Civil War, but for public wear it was discarded.
PHOTO: Hairdresser, Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadeloupe ca 1895
Work Sited: written by Foster, Helen Bradley. "New Raiments of Self": African American Clothing in the Antebellum South. Oxford: Berg, 1997
POST CIVIL WAR MYSTERY- THE ORIGINS OF CHICKEN AND WAFFLES
The exact origins of this dish are unknown, although several theories about its origin exist. During the Civil War fried chicken took on a new significance. The frying process made chicken less prone to spoilage, allowing women to send it to soldiers fighting in the battlefield.
1600’s.. the Pennsylvania Dutch were eating a version of Chicken and Waffles; however, instead of frying their poultry, they used boiled or roasted chicken, which was then shredded and put on top of waffles with gravy instead of syrup
Waffles entered American cuisine in the 1790s after Thomas Jefferson’s purchase of a waffle iron from France. Recipes for waffles and chicken soon appeared in cookbooks. Because African Americans in the South rarely had the opportunity to eat chicken and were more familiar with flapjacks or pancakes than with waffles, they considered the dish a delicacy. For decades, it remained “a special-occasion meal in African American families.”
Some historians place the origin later, after the post-Civil War migration of African Americans to the North. Fried chicken was a common breakfast meat, and serving “a breakfast bread with whatever meat [was available] comes out of the rural tradition.” The combination of chicken and waffles does not appear in early Southern cookbooks such as Mrs. Porter’s Southern Cookery Book, published in 1871 or in What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Old Southern Cooking, published in 1881 by former slave Abby Fisher. Fisher’s cookbook is generally considered the first cookbook written by an African American. The lack of a recipe for the combination of chicken and waffles in Southern cookbooks from the era may suggest a later origin for the dish.
Southern cooking would find its way up North, as slaves—freed after the Civil War—were lured by rumor of better jobs and opportunities. The dish can be found in the 1930s in such Harlem locations as Tillie’s Chicken Shack, Dickie Wells jazz nightclub, and Wells Supper Club
Serving up chicken & waffles”. Los Angeles Business Journal. September 22, 1997. p. 1.
POST CIVIL WAR FOOD- BISCUITS AND GRAVY -
THE BISCUIT - DIED OUT IN ENGLAND- PRESERVED IN AMERICA
The dish gained regional distinction after the Civil War when food was in short supply. Sawmill crews in Appalachian logging camps often survived on little more than coffee, biscuits and cream gravy—hence the popular term “sawmill gravy.”
The biscuit emerged as a distinct food type in the early 19th century, before the American Civil War. Cooks created a cheap to produce addition for their meals that required no yeast, which was expensive and difficult to store.
Soft biscuits are common to Scotland and Guernsey and that the term biscuit as applied to a soft product was retained in these places, and in America, whereas in England it has completely died out…
2 cups flour
2 teaspoons baking powder
¼ teaspoon baking powder
1 teaspoon salt
6 tablespoons shortening
2/3 cup buttermilk
Sift together flour, baking powder, baking soda and salt. Cut in shortening until mixture is the consistency of meal. Stir in buttermilk. Form mixture into a ball; place on a floured surface and knead a few times. Pat out to about 1/4-inch thick. Cut with a small biscuit cutter. Place on an ungreased baking sheet and bake at 450 degrees for 8 to 10 minutes. Cut open and spread with a little butter.
Information from http://www.jacksonfreepress.com/news/2011/apr/06/its-all-gravy/
Nathan Bedford Forrest "The Wizard Of The Saddle” His tactics on the battlefield are still studied by military academies today
“I wish none but those who desire to be actively engaged. Come on boys, if you want a heap of fun and to kill some yankees”
- 29 horses shot from under him, killed or seriously wounded at least thirty enemy soldiers in hand-to-hand combat, and had been himself wounded four times.
- In the motion picture Forrest Gump, Tom Hanks’s character Forrest Gump states that he was named after a “General Forrest”
- Forrest’s victory at Brice’s Cross Roads became the subject of a class taught at the French War College by Marshal Ferdinand Foch before World War I.
- His mobile campaigns were studied by the German general Erwin Rommel, who as commander of the Afrika Korps in World War II, emulated his tactics on a wider scale, with tanks and trucks.
Not only did he lack formal military training, but had very little formal education in his youth. Forrest was the eldest, and the head of seven brothers and three sisters. His father, a blacksmith, died while Forrest was still a young man, necessitating that he forego a formal education and help to raise the family. As a young business man, Forrest overcame his lack of schooling, entering the war as a private with an estimated wealth of a million and a half. During the war, he was an avid reader, scanning the newspapers daily to keep abreast of military information.
Years after the war, General Sherman said, "I think Forrest was the most remarkable man the civil war produced on either side. His opponents were professional soldiers, while he had no military training. He was never taught tactics yet he had a genius for strategy that was original and to me incomprehensible. I couldn’t calculate what he was up to, yet he always knew my intentions."
His lack of education became most noticeable in his poor spelling and punctuation of personally written dispatches and reports. The words such as “skeer,” “git” and “thar” were some examples. Described as urbane and polished in his mannerisms, most of the grammatical distortions in his speech were products of his staff officers and their leg-pulling tales of Forrest. However, in anger or excitement, his no nonsense approach to the English language would become evident. Once, having received a soldier’s repeated request for leave, Forrest responded in writing: “I have told you twict goddamit No!”
He continued to be surrounded by controversy for the remainder of his life. He continued to be active in civic and political events until his health declined prior to his death. On May 14, 1875 he presence was conspicuous at a reunion of the Seventh Cavalry in Covington. Requested to make a speech, he did so from horseback. “…Comrades, through the years of bloodshed and weary marches you were tried and true soldiers. So through the years of peace you have been good citizens, and now that we are again united under the old flag, I love it as I did in the days of my youth, and I feel sure that you love it also….It has been thought by some that our social reunions were wrong, and that they would be heralded to the North as an evidence that we were again ready to break out into civil war. But I think that they are right and proper, and we will show our countrymen by our conduct and dignity that brave soldiers are always good citizens and law-abiding and loyal people.”
Colorized photo by Stacey Palmer thecivilwarparlor tumblr.com
Anna Elizabeth Dickinson- A Name Lost To History-
Civil War Era- Orator, Abolitionist, Women’s Advocate, Author, Playwright And Actress
- First woman to speak before the United States Congress
- First white woman on record to climb Colorado’s Longs Peak in 1873.
One newsman wrote that she “could hold her audience spellbound for as much as two hours. She gave the impression of being under some magical control.” Averaging a speech every other day, she earned as much as twenty thousand dollars annually – an amazing amount for that era.
In 1861 she held a position at the U.S. mint in Philadelphia, but she was fired for publicly accusing General George B. McClellan of treason in the loss of the Battle of Ball’s Bluff. Thereafter she devoted herself to the speaker’s platform.
She addressed venereal disease in a lecture titled “Between Us Be Truth” and spoke on polygamy in “Whited Sepulchers.” Her most popular talk was about Joan of Arc, and some people referred to her as the “Civil War’s Joan of Arc.” She also published several books, the most radical of which was a novel sympathetic to interracial marriage, What Answer? (1868).
By 1891, showed such signs of paranoia that she was involuntarily committed to a Pennsylvania hospital for the insane. She filed lawsuits upon her release, was adjudicated sane, and recovered damages from newspapers – but the experience shook her self-confidence and ended her career. Fame arguably had come too easily, too early in her life. Although she was a genuine celebrity and an asset to the Union in the Civil War, Anna Dickinson lived the next forty years in the households of friends, unnoticed and unwanted by the public. She died just days before her ninetieth birthday.
Colorized photo by Stacey Palmer thecivilwarparlor tumblr.com
- Digital ID: (digital file from original neg.) cwpbh 02348 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cwpbh.02348
- Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA Brady-Handy Collection
Confederate Immigrants To Brazil - Mr. Joseph Whitaker and Mrs. Isabel Norris
The Confederados is a cultural sub-group in the nation of Brazil. They are the descendants of people who fled from the Confederate States of America to Brazil with their families after the American Civil War. Santa Barbara do Óeste and Americana Santa Barbara, Vila Americana, New Texas and other towns in the State of São Paulo were heavily populated by Confederate soldiers.
At the end of the American Civil War, the Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil was interested in having cotton crops due to the high prices and, through Freemasonry contacts, recruited experienced cotton farmers for his nation. Dom Pedro offered the potential immigrants subsidies and tax breaks. General Robert E. Lee advised Southerners not to flee to South America but many ignored his advice and set out to establish a new life away from the destruction of war. Many Southerners who took the Emperor’s offer had lost their land during the war, were unwilling to live under a conquering army, or simply did not expect an improvement in the South’s economic position. Although a number of historians say that the existence of slavery was an appeal, Alcides Gussi, an independent researcher of State University of Campinas, found that only four families owned a total of 66 slaves from 1868 to 1875. The Confederates were the first organized Protestant group to settle in Brazil
The first original Confederado known to arrive was the senator William H. Norris of Alabama—the colony at Santa Barbara d’ Oeste is sometimes called the Norris Colony. Dom Pedro’s program was judged a success for both the Immigrants and the Brazilian government. The settlers brought with them modern agricultural techniques and new crops such as watermelon, and pecans that soon spread among the native Brazilian farmers. Some foods of the American South also crossed over and became part of general Brazilian culture such as chess pie, vinegar pie, and southern fried chicken. The original Confederados continued many elements of American culture and established the first Baptist churches in Brazil. They also established public schools and provided education to their female children, which was unusual in Brazil at the time.
Harter, Eugene C. (2000). The Lost Colony of the Confederacy. Texas A & M University Press.
The South Has Risen Again… in Brazil — Meet the “Confederados”
No one has determined how many Americans immigrated to Brazil in the years following the end of the American Civil War. As noted in unpublished research, Betty Antunes de Oliveira found in port records of Rio de Janeiro that some 20,000 Americans entered Brazil from 1865 to 1885. Other researchers have estimated the number at 10,000. An unknown number returned to the United States when conditions in the southern US improved. Most immigrants adopted Brazilian citizenship
In the east of Brazil, two hours away from Sao Paulo, there’s a small community that has a direct blood link with people from the southern United States. They call themselves “Confederados”. Families with last names like Thomas, Strong or Williamson are living proof of the American emigration from Brazil that started after the Civil War. They left the devastation in the southern states to start over in Brazil, which was still a slaveholder nation. The Americans brought with them their expertise in farming, especially cotton, and helped start an agricultural revolution in Brazil. The descendants of these first immigrants are very proud of their roots and while they display the confederate flag proudly, they insist they are not racist and they denounce slavery.
The descendants foster a connection with their history through the Associação Descendência Americana (American Descendants Association), a descendant organization dedicated to preserving their unique mixed culture.
The lost colony of the Confederacy By Eugene C. Harter
From “Photography and the American Civil War,” at the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art. Terre-plein off the gorge, Fort Sumter. (Photo attributed to Alma A. Pelot)
On April 10, 1861, Brig. Gen. Pierre G.T. Beauregard, in command of the provisional Confederate forces at Charleston, SC, demanded the surrender of the U.S. garrison of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Garrison commander Robert Anderson refused. On April 12, Confederate batteries opened fire on the fort, which was unable to reply effectively. At 2:30 p.m., April 13, Major Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter, evacuating the garrison on the following day. The bombardment of Fort Sumter was the opening engagement of the American Civil War. From 1863 to 1865, the Confederates at Fort Sumter withstood a 22-month siege by Union forces. During this time, most of the fort was reduced to brick rubble.
Date: April 15, 1861 Medium: Albumen silver print from glass negative Dimensions: Image: 13.5 x 18.6 cm (5 5/16 x 7 5/16 in.) Classification: Photographs Credit Line: New-York Historical Society Library, Department of Prints, Photographs, and Architectural Collections
Grave Of Stonewall Jackson’s Arm
In 1863, Stonewall Jackson’s surgeon recommended the removal of his left arm, which had been badly damaged by friendly fire. When a chloroform-soaked cloth was placed over his nose, the Confederate general, in great pain, muttered, “What an infinite blessing,” before going limp.
Internet phenomenons: Is his arm really there? There’s no reason to believe that it’s not there…rumors over the years say it was dug up and reburied..will we ever know the real fate of this most famous appendage?
CIVIL WAR LETTER - FIRST HAND ACCOUNT OF THE CIVIL WAR
"Respects To Inquiring Friends And Tell My Enemies To Go To Hell "
Letter from O. A. Williams to Dear John ca. August 24, 1861. Civil War B2 F5. History Museum for Springfield-Greene County, Springfield, Missouri.
Letter written by O. A. Williams, an assistant surgeon in the Missouri State Guard. He writes the letter from headquarters in Springfield, Missouri to John. In his letter he writes that he is not in good spirits or health and he describes the hardships. He also comments that nearly every building in Springfield has been turned into a hospital, and that he has completed many amputations. Although the letter is not dated, it suggests that it was written around August 24th, 1861, shortly after the Battle of Wilson’s Creek.
Transcription: Head Quarters – Genl Hospital M.S.G. Springfield, Mo. Dear John – I suppose ere this you have had correct information in regard to the fight [Battle of Wilson’s Creek, 1861] so I will say nothing about it. I am not in good health – nor in very good spirits. I can see no end to this infernal war, my appointment may send me to any part of the state So I do not know when I will see you – or Springhill. I want you to get my business in as good a shape as you can – if possible to collect – let no one loose – tell Dr. Newman if he does not pay that bank debt if ever I get back I will start a boot factory in his posterior extremity – so enough about business matters. I saw all of the boys not long ago they were all in good health. did not know nor care where they were going – Springfield presents rather a gloomy appearances, every house nearly has been converted into a Hospital. The wounded are generaly well. there has been a great many amputations. I have taken off a good many legs and arms – untill I am sick and tired – I have heard nothing from home since I left We get nothing to drink d m little to eat here I got a fine mule from a duchman – may get some more – Give my love to Mary and the little ones –respects to inquiring friends and tell my enemies to go to hell - Yours fraternally of – o. A. Williams Asst Surg. Genl Hospital Missouri State Guard J. S. Willsen P. S. I saw Ira yesterday. He was well. So was Monroe Ware Publisher.Digital Springfield-Greene County Library District
Civil War Medicine Chest
Carried By Charles E. White- Seige of Port Hudson 1861 & ‘62D
Diseases contracted during the Civil War killed over twice as many men as bullets. Infections spread rapidly in overcrowded camps. Measles, mumps, rubella, and chicken pox ran rampant, particularly among newly-enlisted soldiers from rural areas who lacked immunities from prior exposure. But even more fatalities resulted from dysentery and diarrhea contracted due to unsanitary conditions.
The Siege of Port Hudson: CIVIL WAR FACTS
“Forty Days and Nights in the Wilderness of Death”
Drum Corps, 8th New York State Militia, Arlington, Va., June, 1861
Civil War Photograph Collection (Library of Congress). DIGITAL ID: (digital file from original) ppmsc 02793 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsc.02793
CONTROL #: 00651612
Sylvester Magee - Slave And Civil War Soldier- Was Likely The Last Living Human Being Who Possessed Any Firsthand Memory Of The Trials Of The Civil War Or Institutionalized Slavery
He was wounded twice in the Siege of Vicksburg and the Battle of Champion Hill.
Sylvester Magee’s obituary proclaimed him to be “The Last American Slave.” According to oral histories, Sylvester Magee was born in North Carolina on May 29, 1841 and sold at Enterprise, Mississippi. He was present at the Vicksburg siege and pressed into service in the Union army. Another source relates that Magee also had duties as a gravedigger in the Vicksburg burial details. By the mid-1960s, due to his advanced age, Sylvester Magee became nationally famous. On his 124th birthday the citizens of Collins, Mississippi threw him a party and Magee was sent a letter of congratulations from President Lyndon Johnson. Governor Paul Johnson even declared the day “Sylvester Magee Day.” Magee took his first flight to New York for a television appearance and later flew to Philadelphia to appear on the Mike Douglas Show.
He appeared in the March 1967 issue of Jet magazine, and was noted by President Richard Nixon as probably the oldest citizen of the United States, having been identified as the nation’s oldest living person by a life insurance company. When asked why he had lived so long, he simply stated that the Lord had been good to him. Reportedly, his last words were “Lord have mercy.” Sylvester Magee was likely the last living human being who possessed any firsthand memory of the trials of the Civil War or institutionalized slavery.
Pleasant Valley Cemetery
Reposted from Find a Grave- Pay your respects here: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=49460775